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FORM 20-F

 

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2010

 

Commission file number 000-22113

 

EURO TECH HOLDINGS COMPANY LIMITED

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

 

EURO TECH HOLDINGS COMPANY LIMITED

(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)

 

British Virgin Islands

(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

 

18/F Gee Chang Hong Centre, 65 Wong Chuk Hong Road, Hong Kong

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

T.C. Leung,

FAX: 852-28734887

18/F Gee Change Hong Centre,

65 Wong Chuk Hong Road,

Hong Kong

(Name, Telephone, Email and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)

 

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act.

 

Name of each exchange on which registered: NASDAQ

Ordinary Shares, $0.01 par value

 

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act.

 

Not Applicable

(Title of Class)

 



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Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act.

 

Not Applicable

(Title of Class)

 

Indicate the number of issued and outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report,

 

11,521,490 Ordinary Shares.

 

 

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

o Yes   x No

 

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

o Yes   x No

 

Note — Checking the box above will not relieve any registrant required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 from their obligations under those Sections.

 

If this is an annual or transitional report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

o Yes   x No

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posed on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).

o Yes   o No

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

x Yes   o No

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer. See definition of “accelerated filer and large accelerated filer” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act (Check one).

 

Large accelerated filer o

 

Accelerated filer o

 

Non-accelerated filer x

 

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

 

U.S. GAAP x

 

International Financial Reporting Standards as issued
by the International Accounting Standards Board
o

 

Other o

 

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.

o Item 17   o Item 18

 

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act)

o Yes   x No

 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

INTRODUCTION

3

 

 

FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS

3

 

 

GLOSSARY

4

 

 

 

PART I

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 3.

KEY INFORMATION

5

Item 3A.

Selected Financial Data

7

Item 3D.

Risk Factors

 

 

 

 

ITEM 4.

INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

 

Item 4A.

History and Development of the Company

13

Item 4B.

Business Overview

15

Item 4C.

Organizational Structure

20

Item 4D.

Property, Plant and Equipment

20

 

 

 

ITEM 5.

OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

 

Item 5A.

Operating Results

21

Item 5B.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

23

Item 5C.

Research and Development, Patents and Licenses

26

Item 5D.

Trend Information

26

Item 5E.

Off Balance Sheet Arrangements

26

Item 5F.

Tabular Disclosure of Contractual Obligations

26

 

 

 

ITEM 6.

DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES

 

Item 6A.

Directors and Senior Management

27

Item 6B.

Compensation

28

Item 6C.

Board Practices

31

Item 6D.

Employees

32

Item 6E.

Share Ownership

32

 

 

 

ITEM 7.

MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

 

Item 7A.

Major Shareholders

32

Item 7B.

Related Party Transactions

33

 

 

 

ITEM 8.

FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

Item 8A.

Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information

33

Item 8B.

Significant Changes

34

 

 

 

ITEM 9.

THE OFFERING AND LISTING

 

Item 9A.

Listing Details

34

Item 9C.

Markets

35

 



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ITEM 10.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

 

Item 10A.

Share Capital

35

Item 10B.

Memorandum and Articles of Association

36

Item 10C.

Material Contracts

37

Item 10D.

Exchange Controls

37

Item 10E.

Taxation

38

Item 10H.

Documents on Display

41

Item 10I.

Subsidiary Information

41

 

 

 

ITEM 11.

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

41

 

 

 

PART II

 

42

 

 

 

ITEM 15.

CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

42

 

 

 

ITEM 16.

[RESERVED]

 

 

 

 

Item 16A.

Audit Committee Financial Expert

43

Item 16B.

Code Of Ethics

43

Item 16C.

Principal Accountant Fees And Services

43

Item 16D.

Exemption From Listing Standards

43

Item 16E.

Purchases of Equity Securities by Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers

44

 

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

 

 

ITEM 18.

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

47

 

 

 

ITEM 19.

EXHIBITS

47

 

Explanatory Note

 

In addition to the financial statements of Euro Tech Holdings Company Limited (the “Company”) attached are the financial statements of Zhejiang Tianlan Environmental Protection Technology Company Limited (“Blue Sky”).  The rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission require that the Company file the financial statements of Blue Sky.

 

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INTRODUCTION

 

In this Form 20-F, reference to “us”, “we”, the “Company” and “Euro Tech” are to Euro Tech Holdings Company Limited and its subsidiaries unless otherwise expressly stated or the context otherwise requires.

 

Forward Looking Statements

 

This annual report contains forward looking statements. Additional written or oral forward looking statements may be made by the Company from time to time in filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC” or the “Commission”) or otherwise. Such forward looking statements are within the meaning of that term in Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”).  Such statements may include, but not be limited to, projections of revenues, income, or loss, capital expenditures, plans for future operations, financing needs or plans, and plans relating to products or services of the Company, as well as assumptions relating to the foregoing. The words “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “project,” and similar expressions identify forward looking statements, which speak only as of the date the statement was made. Forward looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified. Future events and actual results could differ materially from those set forth in, contemplated by, or underlying the forward looking statements. Statements in this Annual Report, including those contained in the sections entitled Part I, Item 3D. “Risk Factors” and Item 5. “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” and the notes to the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements, describe factors, among others, that could contribute to or cause such differences.

 

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GLOSSARY

 

The following glossary of terms may be helpful in understanding the terminology used in this Annual Report.

 

Ambient Air:

 

Atmospheric air (outdoor as opposed to indoor air).

 

 

 

Anaerobic:

 

Treating waste water biologically in the absence of air.

 

 

 

Atomic Spectrometer:

 

An analytical instrument used to measure the presence of an element in a substance by testing a sample which is aspirated into a flame and atomized. The amount of light absorbed or emitted is measured. The amount of energy absorbed or emitted is proportional to the concentration of the element in the sample.

 

 

 

Coalescer:

 

A process that coalesces smaller oil particles to form larger oil particles that can readily float to a tank’s surface.

 

 

 

Colorimeter:

 

An analytical instrument that measures substance concentration by color intensity when the substance reacts to a chemical reagent.

 

 

 

Flow Injection Analyzer:

 

An analytical instrument with a special sampling system that uses a continuous stream of reagent(s) into which fluid samples are injected.

 

 

 

Human Machine Interface Software:

 

A type of software to interface (or coordinate) the interaction between machine or equipment and a human being.

 

 

 

Lamella:

 

Synthetic media installed in a clarifier tank to assist in particle flocculation (coming together in a “floc” or “flakes”)

 

 

 

Mass Spectrometer:

 

An analytical instrument that separates and identifies chemical constituents according to their mass-to-charge ratios and is used to identify organic compounds.

 

 

 

Membrane Biological Reactor (MBR):

 

A suspended-growth bioreactor combined with a membrane liquid/solids separation unit. The “MBR” uses an advanced membrane technology that treats biological wastes to a quality level which in many industries is sufficient for reuse or low-cost disposal to sewers.

 

 

 

Multi-Channel Digital Recorder:

 

A device that measures and records more than one input of a digitized signal (signal in the form of pulses).

 

 

 

Nitrosamines.

 

A group of carcinogenic compounds, which are a component of cigarette smoke, cause cancer in a number of organs, particularly in the liver, kidneys, and lungs.

 

 

 

pH Controller:

 

A process instrument that measures and controls the acidity or alkalinity of a fluid.

 

 

 

Reagent:

 

A chemical substance used to cause a chemical reaction and detect another substance.

 

 

 

Sequential Batch Reactor (SBR):

 

A waste-water treatment process that combines aeration and settling in one reactor tank thus saving on space. Used for the treatment of industrial waste-water as well as municipal sewage. The SBR is a batch process that is ideal for waste-waters of changing characteristics.

 

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PART I

 

ITEM 3.                                          KEY INFORMATION

 

Item 3A                                                    Selected Financial Data

 

SELECTED FINANCIAL INFORMATION

(Amounts expressed in thousands, except share and per share data and unless otherwise stated)

 

The selected consolidated income statement data for years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008, and the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2010 and 2009 set forth below are derived from audited consolidated financial statements of the Company included herein and should be read in conjunction with, and are qualified in their entirety by reference to such financial statements, including the notes thereto and Item 5. “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects.” The selected consolidated income statement data for the years ended December 31, 2007 and 2006 and the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2008, 2007 and 2006 set forth below are derived from audited consolidated financial statements of the Company which are not included herein.

 

 

 

2010

 

2009

 

2008

 

2007

 

2006

 

 

 

US$

 

US$

 

US$

 

US$

 

 

 

Balance Sheet Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

6,130

 

7,025

 

7,146

 

9,387

 

9,160

 

Working capital(1)

 

6,444

 

8,203

 

8,583

 

10,099

 

10,267

 

Total assets

 

25,213

 

26,244

 

28,278

 

25,482

 

19,975

 

Short-term debt(2)

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

Net assets

 

18,101

 

18,932

 

18,979

 

17,958

 

12,990

 

Capital Stock

 

123

 

122

 

122

 

120

 

94

 

 


(1)             Current assets minus current liabilities.

(2)             Short-term debt includes short-term borrowings and current portion of long-term bank loans.

 

 

 

2010

 

2009

 

2008

 

2007

 

2006

 

 

 

US$

 

US$

 

US$

 

US$

 

US$

 

Income Statement Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Revenue

 

22,305

 

27,336

 

31,738

 

27,230

 

27,161

 

Cost of revenue

 

(16,564

)

(20,876

)

(24,154

)

(20,398

)

(20,606

)

Gross profit

 

5,741

 

6,460

 

7,584

 

6,832

 

6,555

 

Selling and Administrative Expenses

 

(7,118

)

(6,608

)

(7,214

)

(6,566

)

(5,961

)

Operating (loss)/income

 

(1,377

)

(148

)

370

 

266

 

594

 

Interest Income

 

42

 

37

 

45

 

256

 

95

 

Other income, net

 

9

 

71

 

145

 

142

 

146

 

(Loss)/Income before taxes

 

(1,326

)

(40

)

560

 

664

 

835

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Income taxes

 

(154

)

(218

)

(321

)

(144

)

(156

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Equity in profit of affiliates

 

723

 

595

 

273

 

247

 

 

Net (Loss)/Income

 

(757

)

337

 

512

 

767

 

679

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Less:   net income attributable to non-controlling interest

 

(330

)

(305

)

(363

)

(345

)

(318

)

Net (Loss)/ income attributable to the Company

 

(1,087

)

32

 

149

 

422

 

361

 

Net (Loss)/ income per Ordinary Share Basic

 

(0.09

)

0.003

 

0.01

 

0.04

 

0.04

 

 

 

(0.09

)

0.003

 

0.01

 

0.03

 

0.03

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Weighted Average Number of Ordinary Shares Outstanding

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic

 

11,549,416

 

11,632,460

 

11,824,153

 

11,105,556

 

8,047,911

 

Diluted

 

11,788,563

 

11,896,537

 

12,212,058

 

12,095,335

 

10,787,420

 

 

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The Company maintains its books and records in United States dollars (“US$”). Its subsidiaries, retail shops and affiliates maintain their books and records either in US$, Hong Kong dollars (“HK$”) or in Chinese Renminbi (“RMB”).

 

The Hong Kong dollar is freely convertible into other currencies (including the US dollar). Since 1983, the Hong Kong dollar has effectively been officially linked to the US dollar at the rate of approximately HK$7.80 = US$1.00.  However, the market exchange rate of the Hong Kong dollar against the US dollar continues to be influenced by the forces of supply and demand in the foreign exchange market. Exchange rates between the Hong Kong dollar and other currencies are influenced by the rate between the US dollar and the Hong Kong dollar.

 

Since 1994, the conversion of Renminbi into foreign currencies, including U.S. dollars, has been based on rates set by the People’s Bank of China, which are set daily based on the previous day’s interbank foreign exchange market rates. From 1994 through 2004, the official exchange rate for the conversion of Renminbi to U.S. dollars has generally been stable and maintained at the rate of approximately RMB8.30 = US$1.00. However, from 2007, through 2010, the Renminbi has fluctuated and at the end of 2010, 2009, 2008 and 2007, the exchange rates were approximately, RMB6.6018 = US$1.00, RMB 6.8282 = US$1.00, RMB 6.8251 = US$1.00 and RMB 7.3141 = US$1.00, respectively. The value of the Renminbi fluctuates and is subject to changes in PRC political and economic conditions.

 

The high, low and average exchange rate set forth below:

 

 

 

Rate at Period End

 

Low

 

High

 

Average

 

US$ to RMB

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fiscal 2006

 

7.8175

 

7.7845

 

8.0715

 

7.9819

 

Fiscal 2007

 

7.3141

 

7.2941

 

7.8062

 

7.6172

 

Fiscal 2008

 

6.8251

 

6.7480

 

7.2941

 

6.9623

 

Fiscal 2009

 

6.8282

 

6.7880

 

6.8430

 

6.8409

 

Fiscal 2010

 

6.6018

 

6.6018

 

6.8344

 

6.7696

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

US$ to HK$

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fiscal 2006

 

7.7794

 

7.7502

 

7.7946

 

7.7690

 

Fiscal 2007

 

7.8049

 

7.7488

 

7.9102

 

7.8026

 

Fiscal 2008

 

7.7507

 

7.7480

 

7.8174

 

7.7874

 

Fiscal 2009

 

7.7551

 

7.7474

 

7.7617

 

7.7522

 

Fiscal 2010

 

7.7827

 

7.7507

 

7.8046

 

7.7689

 

 

The Following Months

 

Low

 

High

 

Average

 

US$ to RMB

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

July 2010

 

6.7716

 

6.7833

 

6.7764

 

August 2010

 

6.7655

 

6.8042

 

6.7862

 

September 2010

 

6.6881

 

6.8105

 

6.7490

 

October 2010

 

6.6410

 

6.6925

 

6.6685

 

November 2010

 

6.6250

 

6.6909

 

6.6526

 

December 2010

 

6.6018

 

6.6748

 

6.6518

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

US$ to HK$

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

July 2010

 

7.7641

 

7.7958

 

7.7769

 

August 2010

 

7.7619

 

7.7794

 

7.7703

 

September 2010

 

7.7567

 

7.7798

 

7.7660

 

October 2010

 

7.7509

 

7.7647

 

7.7585

 

November 2010

 

7.7507

 

7.7641

 

7.7545

 

December 2010

 

7.7629

 

7.7827

 

7.7739

 

 

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Item 3D.          Risk Factors

 

You should carefully consider all of the information set forth in this annual report and the following risk factors. The risks below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks not currently known by us or that we deem immaterial may also impair our business operations. Our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely effected by any of these risks. This annual report also contains forward looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our results could materially differ from those anticipated in these forward looking statements as a result of certain factors, including the risks we face as described below and elsewhere. See “Forward Looking Statements.”

 

Certain Risks Relating To Doing Business In Hong Kong And The People’s Republic Of China (the “PRC” or “China”).

 

PRC Sovereignty Over Hong Kong Still Developing.

 

The Company’s executive and principal offices are located in Hong Kong, a Special Administrative Region of China (or “SAR”; Hong Kong is sometimes herein referred to as the “Hong Kong SAR”).

 

As provided in the Sino-British Joint Declaration on the Question of Hong Kong (the “Joint Declaration”) and the Basic Law of the Hong Kong SAR of China (the “Basic Law”), the Hong Kong SAR is provided a high degree of autonomy except in foreign and defense affairs. The PRC’s political system and policies are not practiced in Hong Kong. Under this principle of “one country, two systems”, Hong Kong maintains a legal system that is based on common law and is different from that of the PRC.

 

The Company’s results of operations and financial condition may be influenced by the political situation in Hong Kong and by the general state of the Hong Kong economy. See “ — Economic Stability Uncertain.”

 

There can be no assurance that these past or any prospective future changes in political, economic or commercial conditions in Hong Kong and the PRC will not result in a material adverse effect upon the Company.

 

Economic Stability Uncertain.

 

Most economies in the Far East had suffered from an economic instability. There can be no assurance that there be a recovery, most especially in light of the recent global economic downturn.  Continued growth in the PRC is dependent upon an adequate supply of energy.  There is no assurance that adequate supplies of energy can be developed or found to fuel the PRC’s continued economic growth.

 

The PRC’s Economic, Political And Social Conditions.

 

The PRC economy differs from the economies of most developed countries in many respects, including the amount of government involvement, level of development, growth rate, control of foreign exchange and allocation of resources.  While the PRC economy has experienced significant growth in the past thirty years, growth has been uneven, both geographically and among the various sectors of the economy.  The PRC government has implemented various measures to encourage economic growth and guide the allocation of resources.  Some of these measures benefit the overall PRC economy, but may also have a negative effect on us.  For example, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by changes in applicable tax regulations, rates of currency exchange, inflation and effects to curb inflation.

 

The PRC economy appears to be moving from a planned economy to a more market-oriented economy.  Although the PRC government has implemented measures since the late 1970s emphasizing the utilization of market forces for economic reform, the reduction of state ownership of productive assets and the establishment of improved corporate governance in business enterprises, a substantial portion of productive assets in the PRC are still owned by the PRC government.  In addition, the PRC government continues to play a significant role in regulating industry development by imposing industrial policies.  The PRC government also exercises significant control over the PRC’s economic growth through the allocation of resources, controlling payment of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies.  These actions, as well as future actions and policies of the PRC government, could materially and adversely effect our business and operations.

 

The success of the Company’s activities in the PRC depends on the Company’s continued ability to overcome circumstances specifically effecting the industrial sector, including the relatively poor infrastructure, road transportation and communications network and an uncertain legal and regulatory environment.

 

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Economic Reforms May Not Continue Or Impact Positively On The Company; Changing Business Environment.

 

Over the past several years, the PRC’s government has pursued economic reform policies including encouraging private economic activities and decentralization of economic deregulation. The PRC government may not continue to pursue these policies or may significantly alter them to our detriment from time to time without notice. Changes in policies by the PRC government resulting in changes in laws, regulations, or their interpretation, or the imposition of confiscatory taxes, restrictions on currency conversion and imports could materially and adversely effect our business and operating results. The nationalization or other expropriations of private enterprises by the PRC government could result in a loss of our investments in actual funds and time and effort, in China.

 

The Company’s results at times may also be adversely effected by: (1) changes in political, economic and social conditions in the PRC; (2) changes in government policies such as changes in laws and regulations (or their interpretation); (3) the introduction of additional measures to control inflation; (4) changes in the rate or method of taxation; (5) imposition of additional restrictions on currency conversion remittances abroad; (6) reduction in tariff protection and other import restrictions; and (7) a return to the more centrally-planned economy that existed previously.

 

We Are Subject To International Economic And Political Risks, Over Which We Have Little Or No Control.

 

Doing business entirely outside the United States subjects us to various risks, including changing economic and political conditions, exchange controls, currency fluctuations, armed conflicts and unexpected changes in United States and foreign laws relating to tariffs, trade restrictions, transportation regulations, foreign investments and taxation. We have no control over most of these risks and other unforeseeable risks and may be unable to anticipate changes in international economic and political conditions and, therefore, unable to alter our business practice in time to avoid the adverse effect of any of these changes.

 

The Recent Financial Crisis and Economic Conditions May Have A Material Adverse Impact on Our Business and Financial Conditions.

 

Worldwide economies had been deteriorating recently.  Global markets have experienced significant turmoil and upheavals characterized by extreme volatility and declines in prices and securities and commodities, diminished credit availability, inability to access capital markets, waves of bankruptcies, high unemployment and declining consumer and business confidence. It appears that the worldwide economic deterioration has negatively impacted our revenue and other results of operation. We cannot predict the short and long-term impact of these events on our business and financial condition that may be materially and adversely effected in the future.

 

Uneven Economic Growth.

 

The PRC’s economy has experienced significant growth in recent years, but that growth has been uneven among various geographic regions and economic sectors. Economic reforms and growth in the PRC have been more successful in certain provinces than in others, and the continuation or increase of such disparities could adversely effect political or social stability.  The PRC’s economy experienced a slowdown in the fourth quarter of 2008 as a result of the global economic crisis with a gradual recovery since the latter half of 2009.  There can be no assurance that the PRC’s economy will continue to grow, that if there is growth, such growth will be steady and uniform, or that if there is a slowdown, such a slowdown will not have a negative effect on our business.

 

PRC Inflation.

 

In recent years, the PRC has not experienced significant inflation, and thus inflation has not had a significant effect on our business historically.  In response to the increased inflation rate during 2004, the Chinese government announced measures to restrict lending and investment in the PRC in order to reduce inflationary pressure on the PRC’s economy; and the inflation rate was reduced in 2005 and 2006, escalated in 2007 and 2008 at a rate of 5.9%, was reduced by 0.7% in 2009 and increased by 3.3% in 2010.  Efforts by the PRC to curb inflation may also curb economic growth, increase our overhead costs and adversely affect our sales.  If the PRC rate of inflation continues to increases, the Chinese government may introduce further measures intended to reduce the inflation rate in the PRC.  Any such measures adopted by the Chinese government may not be successful in reducing or slowing the increase in the PRC’s inflation rate.  Sustained or increased inflation in the PRC may have an adverse impact on the PRC’s economy and may materially and adversely affect our business and financial results.

 

Uncertain Legal System And Application Of Laws.

 

The legislative trend in the PRC over the past decade has been to enhance the protection afforded to foreign investment and allow for more active control by foreign parties of foreign invested enterprises. There can be no assurance that this will continue. In addition, as the PRC economy, business and commercial framework and legal system all

 

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continue to develop, that development may adversely affect the Company’s activities in the PRC or the ability of the Company to enter into Sino-foreign agreements.

 

PRC Legal System Business Laws Developing.

 

The PRC does not yet possess a comprehensive body of business law or a consolidated body of laws governing foreign investment enterprises. As a result, the enforcement, interpretation and implementation of existing laws, regulations or agreements may be sporadic, inconsistent and subject to considerable discretion. The PRC’s judiciary has not had sufficient opportunity to gain experience in enforcing laws that exist, leading to a higher than usual degree of uncertainty as to the outcome of any litigation. As the legal system develops, entities such as the Company may be adversely affected by new laws, changes to existing laws (or interpretations thereof) and preemption of provincial or local laws by national laws. Even when adequate law exists in the PRC, it may not be possible to obtain speedy and equitable enforcement of the law.

 

Government Currency Controls.

 

The PRC government imposes control over its foreign currency reserves in part through direct regulation of the conversion of its currency, Renminbi (“RMB”) into foreign exchange and through restrictions on foreign imports. The conversion of RMB into Hong Kong and United States Dollars (“U.S. Dollars”) must be based on rates set by the People’s Bank of China (“PBOC”), which rates are set daily based on the previous day’s Chinese interbank foreign exchange market rate with reference to current exchange rates on the world financial markets.

 

Currently, the RMB is permitted to fluctuate within a narrow band against the U.S. Dollar.  Exchange rate fluctuations may adversely effect the Company because of increases in overhead costs, adverse effects on sales, foreign currency denominated liabilities, and may materially adversely effect the value, translated into U.S. dollars, of the Company’s net fixed assets situated and to be situated in the PRC, earnings and dividends.

 

Foreign Currency Risk.

 

The Company operates in Hong Kong, the PRC and trades with both local and overseas customers, and is exposed to foreign exchange risk arising from various currency exposures, primarily with respect to purchases in, Hong Kong dollar, Renminbi and Euro.  Foreign exchange risk arises from committed and unmatched future commercial transactions, such as confirmed import purchase orders and sales orders, recognized assets and liabilities, and net investment in the PRC operations.  The Company uses derivative financial instruments such as foreign exchange contracts to hedge certain foreign currency exposures.  There can be no assurances that the Company’s hedging strategies will be adequate to avoid this foreign exchange risk.

 

Turbulent Relations With The United States Of America (“United States”).

 

Differences between the United States and PRC governments on some political issues continue occasionally to color their relationship. These occasional controversies could materially and adversely effect our business and operations. Political or trade friction between the two countries could also materially and adversely effect the market price of our Ordinary Shares, whether or not they adversely effect our business.

 

Certain Risks Relating To The Company’s Business

 

Decline in Revenues; Operating Loss; Loss Before Income Taxes.

 

In Fiscal 2008, the Company had revenues of approximately US$31,738, 000, operating income of approximately US$370,000 and income before income taxes of approximately US$560,000.  In Fiscal 2009, the Company had revenues of approximately US$27,336,000, an operating loss of approximately US$148,000 and a loss before income taxes of approximately US$40,000.  In Fiscal 2010, the Company had revenues of approximately US$22,305,000, an operating loss of approximately US$1,377,000 and a loss before income taxes of US$1,326,000.  The Company primarily attributes the revenue reduction, operating loss and loss before income taxes in Fiscal 2009 and Fiscal 2010 to the global economic downturn and having key suppliers selling their products through China suppliers other than the Company.  Exacerbating these losses in Fiscal 2010 was the further inclination of key suppliers selling their products other than through the Company and the delay of site readiness of several waste water treatment contracts including one site delayed by a fatal traffic accident.

 

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As the global economic downturn appears to be continuing, showing only modest positive economic improvement and the Company may face further competition by having key suppliers selling their products through China suppliers other than the Company, there can be no assurance that the Company’s revenues will not decline further and losses will not increase.

 

We Have Made And May Make Further Acquisitions Without Your Approval.

 

Although we endeavor to evaluate the risks inherent in any particular acquisition, there can be no assurance that we will properly or accurately ascertain all such risks. We will have virtually unrestricted flexibility in identifying and selecting prospective acquisition candidates and in deciding if they should be acquired for cash, equity or debt, and in what combination of cash, equity and/or debt.

 

We have taken and are seeking to take equity positions in related businesses.  We will not seek stockholder approval for any additional acquisitions unless required by applicable law and regulations. Our stockholders will not have an opportunity to review financial and other information on acquisition candidates prior to consummation of any acquisitions under almost all circumstances.

 

Investors will be relying upon our management, upon whose judgment the investor must depend, with only limited information concerning management’s specific intentions.

 

There can be no assurance that the Company will locate and successfully complete any such additional acquisitions, or any acquisition will perform as anticipated, will not result in significant unexpected liabilities or will ever contribute significant revenues or profits to the Company or that the Company will not lose its entire investment in any acquisition.

 

Dependence Upon Management.

 

The Company is dependent upon the services of its executive officers, in particular Mr. T.C. Leung, the Chairman of the Company’s Board of Directors and its Chief Executive Officer. The business of the Company could be adversely effected by the loss of services of, or a material reduction in the amount of time devoted to the Company by its executive officers. The Company does not maintain “Key Man” life insurance on the lives of any of its officers and directors.  See Item 6. “Directors, Senior Management and Employees.”

 

Adverse Impact Upon The Company Of PRC’s Credit Restrictions.

 

The Company faces increasing competition from other distributors of substantially similar products and manufacturers themselves, both foreign and Chinese. The Company faces its principal competition from foreign manufacturers and other distributors of their products situated in Hong Kong and the PRC. Competition may cause purchaser demands for price reductions and reduced profit margin.

 

Competition With Vendors.

 

As the Company assembles products of the kind that it presently distributes, the Company may directly compete with certain of its vendors. Any such direct competition may adversely affect its relationship with its vendors. See Item 4. “Information on the Company.”

 

Dependence On Vendors: Lack of Long Term Arrangements: Loss of Vendors.

 

The Company distributes supplies manufactured by a number of vendors, including, Thermo Fisher Scientific Group (“Thermo”), Hach Company-Lachat Instruments (“Hach”), Hioki E.E. Corporation (“Hioki”) and Siemens Water Technologies Group (“Siemens”), that are the Company’s largest suppliers, pursuant to short term arrangements. Although alternative sources of supply exist, there can be no assurance that the termination of the Company’s relationship with any of the above or other vendors would not have an adverse effect on the Company’s operations due to the Company’s dependence on these vendors.  A substantial number of the Company’s suppliers have been selling their products into China directly and through other distributors.  During Fiscal 2009 our sales, expressed as a percentage of total sales, to Hong Kong increased by 10% while our sales to the PRC decreased by 9% when compared to Fiscal 2008.  The 10% increase in sales to Hong Kong was primarily due to an increase in sales of Thermo’s products. This change continued into Fiscal 2010. The 9% decrease in sales to the PRC was primarily due to the global economic downturn and additional sales by our key suppliers in the PRC through distributors other than the Company. A loss of a substantial vendor or substantial number of our other vendors and/or our competing with them would have a material adverse effect on our revenues from

 

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trading activities.

 

Risks Relating To The Company Itself; Control By T.C. Leung; Potential Conflict Of Interests.

 

T.C. Leung, the Company’s Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer, as a practical matter, is able to nominate and cause the election of all the members of the Company’s Board of Directors, control the appointment of its officers and the day-to-day affairs and management of the Company. As a consequence, Mr. Leung can have the Company managed in a manner that would be in his own interests and not in the interests of the other shareholders of the Company. See Item 7. “Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions” and Item 6. “ Directors, Senior Management and Employees.”

 

Certain Legal Consequences Of Incorporation In The British Virgin Islands; Rights Of Shareholders Not As Extensive As In U.S. Corporations.

 

Principles of British Virgin Islands (“BVI”) corporate law relating to such matters as the validity of the Company procedures, the fiduciary duties of management and the rights of the Company’s shareholders may differ from those that would apply if the Company were incorporated in a jurisdiction within the United States.

 

The rights of shareholders under British Virgin Islands law are not as extensive as the rights of shareholders under legislation or judicial precedent in many United States jurisdictions. Under United States law, majority and controlling shareholders generally have certain “fiduciary” responsibilities to the minority shareholders. United States shareholder action must be taken in good faith and actions by controlling shareholders in a United States jurisdiction and executive compensation which are obviously unreasonable may be declared null and void.

 

The BVI law protecting the interests of the minority shareholders is not as protective in all circumstances as the law protecting minority shareholders in United States jurisdictions. The shareholders of the Company may have more difficulty in protecting their interests in the face of actions by the Company’s Board of Directors, and may have more limited rights, than they might have as shareholders of a company incorporated in many United States jurisdictions.

 

Anti-Takeover Provisions.

 

The Company has 5,000,000 shares of “blank check preferred stock” authorized. The “blank check preferred stock” is intended to strengthen the Company’s ability to resist an unsolicited takeover bid and may be deemed to have an anti-takeover effect. The Board of Directors has the right to fix the rights, terms and preferences at the time of issue of “blank check preferred stock” without further action by our shareholders.

 

Uncertainty Of Enforcing United States Judgments.

 

There is some uncertainty whether BVI courts would enforce judgments of the courts of the United States and of other foreign jurisdictions, or enforce actions brought in the BVI which are based upon the securities laws of the United States. A final monetary judgment obtained in the United States will be treated as a cause of action in itself by the BVI courts so that no retrial of the issues would be necessary, provided that material preconditions are met and the proceedings pursuant to which judgment was obtained were not contrary to the rules of natural justice.

 

All of the Company’s directors and executive officers reside outside of the United States, service of process upon the Company and such persons may be difficult to effect in the United States upon all such directors and officers.

 

All of the Company’s assets are and will be located outside of the United States, in Hong Kong and the PRC, and any judgment obtained in the United States may not be enforced in those jurisdictions. Hong Kong courts will not directly enforce against the Company or such persons judgments obtained in the United States. There is also substantial doubt as to the enforceability in the PRC of actions to enforce judgments of the United States’ courts arising out of or based on the ownership of the securities, including judgments arising out of or based on the civil liability provisions of United States federal or state securities laws or otherwise. See “— Certain Legal Consequences of Incorporation in the British Virgin Islands; Rights of Shareholders not as Extensive as in U.S. Corporations.”

 

Being A Foreign Private Issuer Exempts Us From Certain Securities And Exchange Commission (“Commission”) And NASDAQ Capital Markets (“NASDAQ”) Requirements.

 

We are a foreign private issuer within the meaning of rules promulgated under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”). As such, with certain limitations, we are exempt from certain provisions applicable to United States public companies including: (1) the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing with the Commission of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or current reports on Form 8-K; (2) the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act; (3) the provisions of Regulation FD aimed at preventing issuers from making selective disclosures of material information; and

 

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(4) the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their stock ownership and trading activities and establishing insider liability for profits realized from any “short-swing” trading transaction (i.e., a purchase and sale, or sale and purchase, of the issuer’s equity securities within less than six months).  Because of these exemptions, investors are not afforded the same protections or information generally available to investors holding shares in public companies organized in the United States.

 

Our Securities Must Continue To Meet Qualitative And Quantitative Listing Maintenance Criteria For NASDAQ.

 

Our securities are quoted and traded on the NASDAQ Capital Market.  There can be no assurance that we will continue to meet both the qualitative and quantitative criteria for continued quotation and trading of our securities on the NASDAQ Capital Market.  One of NASDAQ’s listing requirements is the maintenance of a closing bid price of US$1.00 per share.  During periods of time in 2008 and 2009 the Company was not in compliance with that requirement but NASDAQ had generally suspended that requirement and others due to market conditions and/or the US$1.00 per share bid price was not met for a sufficient period of time to cause a NASDAQ deficiency action.

 

Recently, since June 17, 2011 the Company’s Ordinary Shares have been reported by NASDAQ to have a closing price below US$1.00.

 

If we are unable to meet the continued quotation criteria of the NASDAQ Capital Market and are suspended from trading on these markets, our securities could possibly be traded in the over-the-counter market and be quoted in the so-called “pink sheets” or, if then available, the OTC Bulletin Board. In such an event, an investor would likely find it more difficult to dispose of, or even obtain accurate quotations of, our securities. See “- We Are Also Required To Meet Certain, But Not All Corporate Governance Criteria Applicable to NASDAQ Listed Issuers.”

 

We Are Also Required To Meet Certain, But Not All, Corporate Governance Criteria Applicable To NASDAQ Listed Issuers.

 

Although, in the past, we have been able to satisfy corporate governance criteria applicable to NASDAQ’s Capital Market, those criteria are difficult to comply with and include, among other things: (a) a heightened degree of independence of members of the board of directors with independent directors to, among other things: hold regular meetings among themselves only; (b) establishment of a code of conduct addressing compliance with laws; and (c) a limit on payments to independent directors and their family members (other than for services on the board of directors).

 

These corporate governance requirements and a strict definition of “independent director” make it more difficult to find independent directors for our Board of Directors. There is intense competition for qualified independent directors, including those persons with accounting experience and financial statement acumen to serve on audit committees. We believe that continued compliance with the corporate governance requirements applicable to NASDAQ listed issuers may be difficult and increase our costs and expenses as the costs of finding and compensating independent directors escalate and the costs of administering their new powers and responsibilities is an added financial burden. If we are unable to attract and keep a sufficient number of independent directors willing to take on the responsibilities imposed by such rules on what we believe to be commercially reasonable terms, our securities may be delisted from NASDAQ.  (See “-Being a ‘Controlled Company’ Exempts Us From Certain Other Corporate Governance Criteria Applicable to NASDAQ Listed Issuers.”)

 

Being A “Controlled Company” Exempts Us From Certain Other Corporate Governance Criteria Applicable To NASDAQ Listed Issuers.

 

As a result of T.C. Leung, the Company’s Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer beneficially owning the majority voting power of our Ordinary Shares, we are a “controlled company” as that term is defined in rules and regulations applicable to NASDAQ listed issuers. As a “controlled company”, we are not required to comply with certain NASDAQ corporate governance criteria including, among other things, the requirements that the majority of our Board be independent directors, and their having the authority to approve director nominations and executive officer compensation.

 

We Are Not Subject To Various Corporate Governance Measures, Which May Result In Shareholders Having Limited Protections.

 

Recent Federal legislation, including the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (“SOX”), has resulted in the adoption of various corporate governance measures by securities exchanges and NASDAQ designed to promote the integrity of the corporate management and the securities markets.  Being a “controlled company,” we are exempt from many, but not all, of those requirements.  Furthermore, the absence of such practices with respect to our Company may leave our shareholders without protections against interested director transactions, conflicts of interest and similar matters.

 

We May Be Exposed To Potential Risks Relating To Our Internal Controls Over Financial Reporting.

 

Pursuant to Section 404 of SOX, the SEC adopted rules requiring public companies to include a report of management on the company’s internal controls over financial reporting in their annual reports, including Form 20-F.

 

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While we expect to expend significant resources in developing the necessary documentation and testing procedures required by SOX, there is a risk that we will not comply with all of these requirements.

 

In the event we identify significant deficiencies or material weaknesses in our internal controls that we cannot remediate in a timely manner our ability to obtain equity or debt financing could suffer and the market price of our shares could decline.

 

The Market Price Of Our Securities Has Been Fluctuating Widely.

 

During the past several years, the market price of our Ordinary Shares has fluctuated widely on occasion.  Except for the price declines that the Company attributes to the current global economic downturn, the Company knows of no reason for these wide fluctuations. See Item 9.C- “Markets.”

 

There Are Risks In Purchasing Low-Priced Securities.

 

If our securities were to be suspended or delisted from the NASDAQ Capital Market, they could be subject to rules under the Exchange Act which impose additional sales practice requirements on broker-dealers who sell such securities to persons other than established clients and “accredited investors”. For transactions covered by such rules, a broker-dealer must make a special suitability determination of the purchaser and have received the purchaser’s written consent to the transaction prior to the sale. Consequently, such rules may affect the ability of broker-dealers to sell our securities and the ability to sell any of our securities in any secondary market that may develop for such securities.

 

In the event our securities are no longer listed on the NASDAQ Capital Market or are not otherwise exempt from the provisions of the SEC’s “penny stock” rules, such rules may also affect the ability of broker-dealers and investors to sell our securities.

 

There Is No Assurance Of A Continued Public Market For Our Securities.

 

There can be no assurance that a trading market for our Ordinary Shares will continue.

 

We May Be Considered To Be A Passive Foreign Investment Company For The 2010 Calendar Year And May Be A Passive Foreign Investment Company For Future Years, Which Would Result In Adverse U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences To U.S. Holders Of Our Ordinary Shares.

 

A non-U.S. corporation will be considered a passive foreign investment company (“PFIC”) for U.S. income tax purposes, for any taxable year if either (i) at least 75% of its gross income is passive income or (ii) at least 50% of the value of its assets (based on an average of the quarterly values of the assets during a taxable year) is attributable to assets that produce or are held for the production of passive income. The annual PFIC determination to be made by a U.S. holder of our ordinary shares is an inherently factual determination and there is limited guidance regarding the application of the PFIC rules to specific situations. We currently hold a substantial amount of cash and cash equivalents, and investments in PRC enterprises, and the value of our goodwill and other assets may be based in part on the market price of our ordinary shares, which has experienced significant fluctuations. Although the determination of PFIC status is subject to factual uncertainties because it depends upon the valuation of our ordinary shares, as well as our goodwill and other assets and income, we are uncertain if we would be considered to be a PFIC for 2010. In addition, as the determination of PFIC status is made on an annual basis and depends on variables over which we have limited control, there can be no assurance that we will not be a PFIC for 2011 or any future years. If we are a PFIC in any year, U.S. Holders will be subject to certain adverse United States federal income tax consequences, and are urged to consult with his or her tax advisor. See  “Item 10 Taxation—United States Federal Income Taxation.”

 

ITEM 4.           INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

 

Item 4A.          History and Development of the Company

 

The Company was organized under the laws of the British Virgin Islands on September 30, 1996 for the purposes of raising capital and for acquiring all the outstanding capital stock of Euro Tech (Far East) Limited, a Hong Kong corporation involved in the distribution of advanced water treatment equipment (“Far East”). In March 1997, the Company acquired all the issued and outstanding capital stock of Far East and it became a wholly-owned subsidiary and was the primary operational entity of the Company.

 

During Fiscal 2005, we completed our plan to increase our equity position in Yixing Pact Environmental Technology Company Limited (“Yixing”) and Pact Asia Pacific Limited (“Pact”), a company engaged in water and waste-water treatment solution business.  We had previously owned thirty (30%) percent of their capital stock.  With the

 

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addition of twenty-one (21%) percent of Pact’s and Yixing’s capital stock in October 2005, they became our majority-owned subsidiaries.  In January 2010, we acquired an additional two percent (2%) interest in Pact, increasing our ownership to fifty-three (53%) percent of Pact.  The foregoing purchases of Yixing and Pact were made from Tamworth Industrial Limited (“Tamworth”). In April 2011, we signed agreements with Tamworth to acquire additional 5% equity interests in Yixing and Pact for a total consideration of approximately US$234,000

 

Pact and Yixing, situated in Shanghai, specialize in the design, manufacture and operation of water and waste-water treatment plants in several industries situated in China.  Pact and Yixing, through associates and business alliances, also conduct similar operations in the Middle East.

 

In November of 2006 we established Shanghai Euro Tech Environmental Engineering Company Ltd. (“Shanghai — Environmental”) as a wholly-owned subsidiary under the laws of the People’s Republic of China, to carry on our environmental engineering department with that line of business and its personnel transferred from our subsidiary, Euro Tech (Far East) Ltd.  Shanghai — Environmental is focusing on our water and waste-water treatment engineering business and is planned to be the home of our planned expansion into the air pollution control business.

 

China’s rapid economic growth had led it to become one of the world’s largest emitters of sulfur dioxide.  The damage due to acid rain caused by sulfur dioxide is vast, and is also affecting the neighboring countries as air currents transport sulfur dioxide.  To tackle these environmental and geo-political issues, China has established targets to reduce key pollutants, namely, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and suspended particulates.  Heavy polluters are being warned to reduce their emissions or face penalties.  We believe that as a result, the demand of desulphurization and dust removal equipment will increase accordingly.

 

In August 2007, Far East acquired a 20% equity interest in Zhejiang Tianlan Environmental Protection Technology Company Limited (“Blue Sky”), founded in 2000, for approximately US$4,648,000.  Blue Sky provides design and general contracting services, equipment manufacturing, installation, testing and operation management for the purification treatment of industrial waste gases (specifically as desulphurization, flue gas de-nitration, dust removal) emitted from various boilers and industrial furnaces of power plants, steelworks and chemical plants.  By securing an equity stake in Blue Sky’s business, we have a strategic partner to work within China’s environmental protection business.  With Blue Sky’s technology and technical support, we believe we are able to provide services and environmental solutions not only for water and waste-water treatment but also for air pollution control for industrial clients in China.

 

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In January 2008, we acquired a 20% equity interest in Zhejiang Jia Huan Electronic Co. Ltd., (“Jia Huan”) for approximately US$2,610,000. Jia Huan has been in the environmental protection business since 1969. Approximately 95% of Jia Huan’s business is related to air pollution control and less than 5% is related to water and wastewater treatment.  Jia Huan designs and manufactures automatic control systems and electric voltage control equipment for electrostatic precipitators which are used as air purification equipment for power plants, cement plants and incinerators to remove and collect dust and pollutants from exhaust stacks.

 

Item 4B.Business Overview.

 

The Company had been primarily a distributor of a wide range of advanced water treatment equipment (including chlorination equipment), laboratory instruments, analyzers, test kits and related supplies and power generation equipment (including recorders and power quality analyzers). The Company acts as an exclusive and non-exclusive distributor for well-known manufacturers of such equipment, primarily to commercial customers and governmental agencies or instrumentalities in Hong Kong and the PRC.

 

The Company distributes products through its Hong Kong headquarters, its trading companies in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chongqing, Xi´An, Shenyang, Wuhan, Fuzhou and Urumqi and representative offices in Hong Kong, the PRC and Macau.

 

Laboratory instruments, analyzers and test kits are used to analyze the chemical content and ascertain the level of impurities or other contaminants in water. The Company distributes analytical re-agents and chemicals to support testing systems of laboratory and portable instruments, process analyzers and portable test kits and assist in the analysis process. The Company offers a wide variety of test kits to test water quality. The Company believes that these portable test kits are easy to use and preadapted for rugged field use. These test kits are used to monitor drinking water distribution systems.

 

Laboratory and portable instruments generally consist of analytical instruments including, but not limited to the following: spectrophotometers, colorimeters, turbidimeters, ion-selective electrodes, chemical oxygen demand apparati, digestion apparati, and precision re-agent dispensing devices which are used to test and monitor impurities and contaminants in water systems. See “Glossary.”

 

The Company also distributes continuous-reading process analyzers, process turbidimeters, pH controllers and analyzer accessories. These products are generally used to monitor and control drinking water quality to ensure that water treatment procedures comply with regulatory standards. See “Glossary.”

 

To allow the Company to bid on larger water, waste-water and power generation projects, we acquired Pact and Yixing (“Pact-Yixing”). The Company believes that the Pact-Yixing business is complementary to the Company’s business as the Company expects to have a competitive advantage by offering customers and potential customers not only hardware but solutions to engineering problems as well.

 

Pact-Yixing have completed a substantial number of industrial water and waste-water treatment projects in the PRC.  The majority of these projects are for large multinational manufacturing facilities for clients from the USA, Europe and Japan.  Process design as well as mechanical and electrical engineering are completed in-house and manufacturing contracted to approved fabricators of components.  Fabrication drawings are also done in-house for submittal to said fabricators under the supervision of Pact-Yixing’s quality control engineers.

 

Pact-Yixing clients cover a varied spectrum of industries covering semiconductor, pharmaceutical, petrochemicals, auto and auto parts, steel, food and beverage and beauty products. For example, in February 2010, Pact entered into an agreement with a stainless steel manufacturer providing for an aggregate of up to US$3,800,000 for the engineering, design, supply, equipping, installation, personnel training and commissioning of waste water treatment, direct water cooling, indirect cooling tower water, potable water treatment and industrial water treatment systems in Jiangsu, China. Target dates for the completion of the various systems commence at the end of January 2011 and run through March 2011. The balance of the contract price is payable in varying installments upon the completion of certain thresholds and the buyer’s acceptance of the thresholds being met.

 

The water and waste-water treatment processes applied at Pact-Yixing cover chemical, physical, biological and membrane separation.  A combination of those processes are normally used to treat a specific industrial process feed or effluent.  With respect to the water treatment side of Pact-Yixing’s business, they design and build filtration equipment, ion-exchange softeners and demineralizers, reverse osmosis, electro-deionization, chemical treatment systems and package type mobile water treatment plants.  As for waste-water treatment, Pact-Yixing design and build biological treatment systems, oil coalescers, dissolved air flotation, lamella clarifiers, chemical reactor tanks, ultrafiltration, microfilitration, dewatering systems and package type mobile sewage treatment plants.  Biological treatment plants cover both aerobic and anaerobic processes.  State-of-the-art aerobic processes of SBR (sequential batch reactors) and MBR (membrane biological reactors) are technologies also covered by Pact-Yixing.  SeeGlossary.”

 

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In 2006, Pact-Yixing commenced selling water and waste-water treatment equipment.  The equipment are components of systems traditionally marketed by Pact-Yixing.  The equipment are partially manufactured to Pact-Yixing’s in-house design and partially procured from approved Chinese suppliers.  PACT and Engineering FZC (“PACTFZC”), a Middle Eastern water treatment company based in Dubai, and a third party agreed to form a joint venture.  In June 2007, the joint venture, Pact Environmental Equipment Co. Limited (the “JV”), was registered in the PRC without the parties entering into a written joint venture agreement.  PACT invested US$300,000 and has a 60% controlling interest of the JV, PACTFZC, majority owned by George Hayek, the Company’s Managing Director and the third party each invested US$100,000 in consideration for 20% interests.  The JV’s products cover equipment used for screening, grit removal, clarification, aeration, sequential batch reactors, membrane bioreactors, sludge dewatering and sludge conveying.

 

We are in the process of shifting our emphasis from the distribution of instruments and equipment to engineering and manufacturing activities.  Revenues from our “trading” activities have fallen-off as a substantial number of our suppliers have been selling their products into China directly and through other distributors.  Many of these other distributors are local Chinese companies and can operate with a lower overhead.  In Fiscal 2008, revenues and net income generated from our environmental engineering department and our majority owned subsidiaries, Pact and Yixing (companies engaged in the water and waste water treatment solution business), more than offset our falling “trading” revenues.  In Fiscal 2009, that was no longer the case as Pact’s and Yixing’s revenues declined as a result of the global economic downturn.

 

During Fiscal 2010, “trading” activities revenue substantially declined.  In response, the Company began streamlining operations and further restructured the Company from a trading orientation to manufacturing and engineering activities. Non-profitable or non-strategic retail shops and representative office closed with consequent staff reductions with a focus on trading activity in Hong Kong, Macau and Guangdong. A fatal traffic accident in September 2010 disrupted the progress of the Guangxi contract and other engineering activities and business opportunities. Five people died, including two members of our project Management Team and an employee of a civil engineering sub-contractor. The Company drew employees from other projects and hired a new sub-contractor. Drawing personnel from other projects delayed those projects as well. Lastly, several waste water treatment projects were delayed as a result of site preparation short comings by the owners. All these factors had a substantive negative impact on the Company’s financial results of operations for Fiscal 2010. The loss to the Company from the traffic accident cannot be financially quantified.

 

Product Distribution and Other Services

 

Scientific Instruments. The Company distributes analytical instruments, environmental monitoring instruments and general purpose laboratory instruments. Analytical instruments include, but are not limited to, chromatographs, mass spectrometers, flow injector analyzers, automated sample preparation workstations and atomic spectrometers. Environmental monitoring instruments include both air and water quality monitoring instruments. Air quality monitoring instruments are generally divided into those which monitor ambient (i.e., atmospheric) air, and those which monitor pollution sources. Additionally, the Company offers general purpose laboratory instruments including a variety of water quality monitoring and analysis equipment, such as continuous reading process analyzers, process turbidimeters, pH controllers, and test kits for monitoring chemical content in water (i.e., chlorine, fluorides, etc.). See “Glossary.”

 

Customers for the analytical instruments include government agencies, academic and research institutions, major laboratories and beverage producers, including analytical system to Water Supplies Department for determination of carcinogenic nitrosamines in drinking water in order to meet new World Heath Organization standards.

 

Customers for air and water quality monitoring instruments also include government agencies.

 

The Company derived approximately, 59.2%, 67.2% and 52.4% of its revenues from the sale of Scientific Instruments during Fiscal 2010, Fiscal 2009 and Fiscal 2008, respectively.

 

Process Control and Engineering Products. The Company provides process control systems specifically designed for the industrial needs of clients including sensors, temperature gauges, pressure gauges, power and energy consumption meters, flow meters, valves, temperature and pressure transmitters and control devices, temperature and pressure calibrators, moisture, power, energy and harmonic analyzers. Chlorination disinfection systems are also distributed by Far East in conjunction with water treatment, sewage discharge and swimming pool water treatment. Customers for the foregoing distributed products include government water supply agencies, water treatment facilities, power and electric companies, petrochemical plants and instrument manufacturers.

 

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In conjunction with the distribution of products such as programmable logic controllers, telemetry units and SCADA systems and software, the Company also provides systems engineering to government agencies, waste-water treatment and power generation plants and beverage producers. Specific services provided include automated control system design, the operation and management of various waste-water, water and power generation projects. We endeavor to introduce, develop, and promote new and advanced technologies, products, and appropriate technical developments from abroad. We have also been cooperating with established technology companies and engage in systems and special projects in Programmable Logic Control, Telemetry unit, SCADA systems, Human Machine Interface Software and Sequential Event Recording.

 

The Company derived approximately 25.2%, 17.8% and 19.3% of its revenues from the sale of Process Control and Engineering Products during Fiscal 2010, Fiscal 2009 and Fiscal 2008, respectively.

 

Energy Conservation, And Related Products. The Company distributes general testing and measuring equipment including multi-channel digital and analogue recorders, signal amplifiers and calibration equipment for energy conservation, renewable energy equipment, power quality analyzers, continuous emissions monitoring systems and air pollution control systems to industries including power plants, railway and aero-space industries, utilities, educational institutions and telecommunications companies. The Company derived approximately 13.7%, 13.2% and 27.1% of its revenues from the sale of these Energy Conservation and Related Products during Fiscal 2010, Fiscal 2009 and Fiscal 2008, respectively.

 

Technical Support. The Company’s technical support staff provides customers with maintenance, installation assistance, and calibration services, and assists sales personnel in giving technical advice to and performing product demonstrations for customers. Technical Support services derived approximately 1.9%, 1.8% and 1.2% of its revenues from Technical Support Operations during Fiscal 2010, Fiscal 2009 and Fiscal 2008, respectively.

 

Customers. During Fiscal 2010, the Company distributed products to approximately 1,000 customers, located in Hong Kong, the PRC and Macau such as the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department, Hong Kong Water Supplies Department, Government Laboratory, Drainage Services Department, and various Environmental Monitoring Centers in the PRC. The Company does not believe that any single customer is material to its operations.

 

Manufacturing and Product Assembly Operations

 

The Company, through its PRC Corporation, Shanghai Euro Tech Limited established in 1999 in the Pudong Jin Qiao Export Processing Zone of Shanghai, engages in the development, production, sales and servicing of environmental equipment, including the development of modern laboratory analyzers, on-line measuring equipment and other analyzers for chemicals. Our products are “tailor-made” for the diversified needs of equipment users. Main products include Infrared Photometric Oil Analyzer (IPOA), COD analyzers, Total Organic Carbon Analyzer, turbidity meters, total suspended solid analyzers, dissolved oxygen analyzers, various types of spectrophotometers as well as a full spectrum of matching chemical reagents. In late 2005, we began offering new turbidity meters manufactured by the Company.  the new turbidimeter is directed at water treatment plants, environmental monitoring status, hydrological stations.  In November 2006, we began actively marketing our Total Organic Carbon (TOC) analytical instrument that measures the degree of the pollution level of drinking water, ground water and waste water. Our TOC analyzer has been three and a half years in research, development and field testing of prototypes sold to our customers. We had made some modifications to this product to improve the quality and obtained updated Chinese Metrology Certification, a certificate issued by Bureau of Quality and Technical Supervision in November 2007 and began selling this modified TOC in 2008. We have also upgraded other existing instruments and developed a quick response Chemical Oxygen Demand (“COD”) test instrument for use on surface water, underground water and domestic and industrial wastewater.  In 2008 we introduced a Flue Gas Emissions Analyzer for use in environmental compliance monitoring. We also developed energy meters (devices measuring electric energy consumption and corresponding carbon dioxide emissions) and water toxicity analysis instruments.  In 2010, we started to develop a nondispersive infrared sensor (“NDIR”) for flue gases which is still in development stage.

 

Although it takes substantial to develop, test and market a product, the Company believes that ultimately by establishing product assembly operations in the PRC will not only increase revenues, expand its customer base, but also its net income since the Company believes it will enjoy higher overall profit margins by assembling certain products which it now distributes, the Company can reduce its reliance on purchasing finished products from vendors.

 

Sources of Supply

 

The Company distributes products manufactured by a substantial number of major American, European and Japanese corporations, including Thermo, Hach, Hioki and Siemens, which are the Company’s largest suppliers, with purchases from them accounting for approximately 21%, 10%, 6% and 13%, respectively of the Company’s sales during Fiscal 2009 and approximately 21%, 13%, 7% and 7% during Fiscal 2010.  The Company has exclusivity agreements for specified geographic areas with many of its suppliers for certain products. Those agreements do not encompass all products distributed by the Company or all of the market areas serviced by the Company. In addition, some of these

 

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agreements are memorialized not as formal contracts but rather through other acknowledgements or correspondence which may contain a vague, if any, description of the terms and conditions of such agreement or arrangement, and therefore may be unenforceable.  The Company’s Letter of Authorization with Thermo was valid until December 31, 2010, however, the Company continues to sell Thermo’s products under the same terms. The Company’s agreement with Siemens terminated in 2010. The Company’s agreement with Hach is valid until December 31, 2011 and terminable on ninety days notice by either party. The Company has only a Authorization Letter from Hioki appointing the Company as Hioki’s sales representative in the PRC, Hong Kong and Macau. Although alternative sources of supply exist, there can be no assurance that the termination of the Company’s relationship with any of the above or other vendors would not have an adverse effect on operations.

 

Future Planning and Expansion

 

We continuously search for products and equipment with substantial market potential for design and development.  For example, international shipping ballast water cargo stowaway species and microorganisms that create unpredictable ecosystem contaminations as ballast water tanks are emptied or refilled at ports of call. The International Maritime Organization requires that by 2017, all ocean going vessels be fitted with dedicated water treatment systems treating ballast water before port-of-call discharge.  Pact has been attempting to develop a non-chemical ballast water treatment system since late 2010.  We anticipate that the costs of any such acquisition or product development would be drawn from our general working capital and, possibly, by seeking strategic partners such as companies in shipping industries or funding raising from substantial investors, and by private sales of our securities including the potential exercise by officers and directors of their options.  We have no commitments or indications of interest for the private sales of our securities.

 

We are planning to expand our activities in the air pollution control business by forming joint ventures involved in (i) the dust removal and/or (ii) the flue gas desulphurization for power plant industries and other similar industries.

 

Our plans for the near term also include use of our “on-line” product sales (via www.yibaynet.com) will allow us to continue to offer products at lower prices than our competitors.

 

The Company believes that by assembling the products it distributes it may realize increased gross profit margins and greater revenues and net income than if it remains only a product distributor. During the next twelve months, we intend to assemble and/or manufacture additional products, especially those related to the air pollution and energy conservation sectors and seek opportunities with our suppliers to assemble their products, secure manufacturing and/or assembly facilities and seek another manufacturer of analytical instruments to acquire.

 

Regulatory Environment

 

Concerns about and awareness of pollution problems and environmental issues have grown at all levels of PRC government as the PRC experienced economic growth. Environmental protection laws and strict regulations have been enacted and are buttressed by increased budget allocations for environmental regulation, monitoring and enforcement. The PRC’s primary environmental protection agency is the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), under which there are Environment Protection Bureaus in each city and county. According to oral information received by management from MEP, under bureau management, there are two environment monitoring systems: one system consists of over 2,200 monitoring stations to collect and analyze the environmental data of each city and county; another system consists of over 2,500 stations to monitor specific industrial districts or factories which have been identified as major pollution sources due to their non-compliance with environmental regulations. MEP is considering to adding on-line toxicity as one of the parameters for on-line monitoring stations in China. The PRC government has established ambitious targets in its 12th Five-Year Program (2011-2015) to slash emissions of pollutants, including sulfur dioxide emissions and COD, by 10%.  The PRC government passed a law requiring power distributors to combat global warming.  A central government fund, financed by a national tariff increase, will subside the tariff gap between more expensive renewable energy and the national average tariff.  Preferential policies also encourage construction of renewable energy projects, projects in poorer interior regions that are often rich in water, solar and wind resources.  The Company has supplied water and air quality monitoring and analytic instruments to these monitoring stations for several years. There can be no assurance that the agencies will continue to use the Company’s products for these purposes, or that other market competitors will not enter the market with superior products, distribution systems or more competitive prices. See “Competition.”

 

Competition

 

The Company faces competition from other distributors of substantially similar products as well as the manufacturers of such products, and in both foreign and Chinese markets.  The Company faces its principal competition

 

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from manufacturers and other distributors of its core products located in Hong Kong and the PRC.  Moreover, the Company has implemented plans to assemble products of the kind that it presently distributes (see “-Product Assembly Operations”).  Assembly operations have developed to the stage where some products have already been presented to the market and the Company is in direct and unavoidable competition with certain of its vendors.  There can be no assurance that the existence of this direct competition will not impair the Company’s ability or such competitor’s willingness to continue providing other products for continued distribution by the Company and that such a development would not materially adversely effect the Company’s core business.

 

During Fiscal 2010, Fiscal 2009 and Fiscal 2008, the Company’s gross profit margins were approximately 26%, 24% and 24%, respectively. The Company believes that it competes with the PRC manufacturers on the basis of quality and technology. The Company believes it offers foreign-manufactured products which are of higher quality and use more advanced technology than products manufactured in the PRC. The Company believes that it competes with foreign manufacturers and other distributors of their products on the basis of the Company’s more extensive distribution network and an established reputation. Pact-Yixing focuses on a market of providing water and waste water treatment services to multinational companies.  The Company competes in this market based upon the quality of its products and having a knowledgeable staff.

 

Website

 

The Company has a internet platform located at (http://www.chinah2o.com). The website is directed at environmental businesses in China.  The website provides environmental news, directories of western suppliers, potential clients in China, and advertisement space.

 

The Company, through its subsidiary, Euro Tech Trading (Shanghai) Limited, a PRC corporation, has a internet platform. The website is located at (http://www.yibaynet.com). The website is an instrument sourcing platform under which potential customers can ask for sales quotations and place orders via internet. It can replace some functions of the closed retail shops.

 

Sales and Marketing

 

The Company distributes products through its principal office located in Hong Kong and its representative PRC offices located in Beijing and Wuhan, and its wholly-owned trading/retail companies and their representative offices in Shanghai, Chongqing, Guangzhou, Shenyang, Xi’an and Urumqi. During 2010, the Company closed 5 retail outlets and 1 representative office and consolidated some personnel into our remaining representative offices and retail/trading companies, and reducing overall staffing by 24 people. The Company has a marketing and sales force of 55 people who are paid a salary plus a sales based commission.

 

Our sales staff assists customers in selecting the equipment, auxiliary parts and products to suit customer specifications.

 

We will continue to consolidate our operations by closing companies and offices that do not appear to be contributing to the Company as expected.

 

Our remaining sales companies are located in:  Shanghai, Chongqing, Guangzhou, Shenyang and Xi’an.

 

Our remaining representative offices are located in:  Beijing, Wuhan and Urumqi.

 

Litigation

 

After the fatal traffic accident in September 2010, the parents of two person who died in the accident, deceased employees of a site the Company was working upon, commenced an action against ten Defendants, including the Company, in the People’s Court, Tian Dong Province, Guangxi, PRC. The Plaintiffs alleged that the accident was caused by a vehicle driven by an employee of a civil engineer sub-contractor of the Company, performing Company tasks during the accident and the Company assumed joint and several liability with the driver. The Plaintiffs are seeking damages of US$64,000 and US$95,000, respectively, and attorneys fees. The Company retained counsel seeking a vigorous defense, denied liability on the grounds that the driver had not been proven to be the employee of the civil engineer sub-contractor and had failed to obey a traffic light. This matter was heard by the Court on April 28, 2011 but remains in the pleading and motion stages of litigation. Management believes that the Company will prevail in this matter and intends to continue to vigorously defend this matter.

 

The family of a Company employee who died in the accident has asked for US$45,000 in compensation.

 

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Item 4C.          Organizational Structure

 

The Company presently wholly owns Far East, a Hong Kong corporation, which, in turn, owns the following corporations:

 

Wholly-Owned

 

·      Euro Tech Trading (Shanghai) Limited — a People’s Republic of China corporation

·      Euro Tech (China) Limited — a Hong Kong corporation

·      ChinaH2O.com Limited — a Hong Kong corporation

·      Shanghai Euro Tech Limited — a People’s Republic of China corporation

·      Shanghai Euro Tech Environmental Engineering Company, Ltd. — a People’s Republic of China corporation

·      Chongqing Euro Tech Rizhi Technology Company, Limited — a People’s Republic of China corporation

·      Rizhi Euro Tech Instrument (Shaanxi) Company Limited— a People’s Republic of China corporation

·      Guangzhou Euro Tech Environmental Equipment Company Limited— a People’s Republic of China corporation

 

Majority Owned

 

·      Yixing Pact Environmental Technology Company Limited — a People’s Republic of China corporation

·      Pact Asia Pacific Limited — a BVI corporation (“PACT”)

 

Other Entities

 

Pact Environmental Equipment Co. Limited — a PRC joint venture, 60% owned by PACT

 

Zhejiang Tianlan Environmental Protection Technology Company Limited — a People’s Republic of China corporation.*

 

Zhejiang Jia Huan Electronic Co. Ltd., — a People’s Republic of China corporation.*

 


* A 50 percent or less owned person accounted for by the equity method as defined by SEC rules and regulations.

 

The Company’s wholly-owned subsidiary and primary operational arm is Far East, which it acquired in March 1997. Far East has engaged in the distribution of various industrial control equipment, which continues to be the core business of the Company, since its inception in 1971.

 

Item 4D.          Property, Plant and Equipment

 

The Company maintains an executive office at 18/F Gee Chang Hong Centre, 65 Wong Chuk Hang Road, Hong Kong. The Company occupies approximately 12,800 square feet of office and warehouse storage space under a two (2) year lease that expires in May 2011 with a monthly rental payments of approximately US$8,140. The warehouse storage space is used to hold products for distribution to our customers via common carriers.

 

In August 1995, the Company purchased approximately 1,200 square feet of space in a building in Hong Kong. This property is now rented out to a third party.

 

The Company’s 6 field and representative offices are rented by the Company pursuant to short-term leases aggregating approximately US$3,678 per month.

 

Euro Tech Trading (Shanghai) Ltd. has two offices rented pursuant to short term leases, at an aggregate monthly rental of approximately US$1,264.  Shanghai Euro Tech Limited’s premises are rented pursuant to a short term lease for a monthly rental of approximately US$2,548.  Shanghai Euro Tech Environmental Engineering Company, Ltd’s premises are also rented pursuant to a short term lease for a monthly rental of approximately US$1,169.

 

Pact occupies a 700 square meter facility in Shanghai, pursuant to a 3 year lease expiring in January 2012, providing for a monthly rental of approximately US$6,542.

 

In April 2011, the Company sold a building that had been used as representative office in Shanghai. This office was moved to the Company’s Pudong location and the building was sold for approximately US$489,000 to an independent third party.

 

The Company’s registered office in the British Virgin Islands is located at TrustNet Chambers, P.O. Box 3444, Road Town, Tortola, British Virgin Islands and its telephone number is (284) 494-5296.

 

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ITEM 5.           OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

 

Overview. The Company is engaged in two different major activities, namely Product Distribution and Manufacturing and Environmental Services.

 

The Company is a distributor of a wide range of advanced water treatment equipment (including chlorination equipment), laboratory instruments, analyzers, test kits and related supplies and power generation equipment (including recorders and power quality analyzers).

 

The Company, through its PRC corporation, Shanghai Euro Tech Limited established in 1999 in the Pudong Jin Qiao Export Processing Zone of Shanghai, engages in the development, production, sales and servicing of environmental protection equipment, and energy conservation and related products.

 

The Company, through its majority owned subsidiaries, Pact and Yixing, its wholly-owned subsidiary, Shanghai — Environmental, and its affiliates, Blue Sky and Jia Huan, engages in water and waste-water treatment engineering business and air pollution control business.

 

Item 5A.          Operating Results

 

Background - Political and Economic Conditions in Hong Kong and the People’s Republic of China

 

The Company’s operations are located almost entirely within, and revenues are almost entirely generated from Hong Kong and the PRC. Set forth below are the approximate percentage of the Company’s sales made to customers in the PRC and Hong Kong for the fiscal years indicated:

 

Fiscal Year

 

PRC

 

Hong Kong

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2008

 

80

%

18

%

2009

 

71

%

28

%

2010

 

71

%

28

%

 

Sales to customers situated in Macau and elsewhere through Fiscal 2010 were nominal. This makes the Company particularly susceptible to changes in the political and economic climate of either Hong Kong or the PRC.

 

Hong Kong. Hong Kong has been one of the prime centers for commercial activity and economic development recently in Southeast Asia. On July 1, 1997, sovereignty over Hong Kong was transferred from the United Kingdom to the PRC. As provided in the Sino-British Joint Declaration and the Basic Law, the Hong Kong SAR is provided a high degree of autonomy except in foreign and defense affairs. The Basic Law provides that the Hong Kong SAR is to have its own legislature, legal and judicial system and full economic autonomy for 50 years after the transfer of sovereignty. Based on the current political conditions and the Company’s understanding of the Basic Law, the Company does not believe that the transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong has had or will have an adverse impact on its financial and operating environment. Although the Chinese government has pledged to maintain the economic and political autonomy of Hong Kong over its internal affairs, there is no assurance that such pledge will continue to be honored if there are changes in the Chinese political or economic climate. Sales in Hong Kong, expressed as a percentage of our revenue in Fiscal 2010 unchanged as compared with Fiscal 2009.  See Item 3D. “Key Information — Risk Factors.”

 

PRC. The PRC has been a socialist state since 1949. For more than half a century, the PRC’s economy has been, and presently continues to be, a socialist economy operating under government controls promulgated under various State Plans adopted by central Chinese government authorities and implemented, to a large extent, by provincial and local authorities which may set production and development targets. However, since approximately the early 1980s, the PRC’s national government has undertaken certain reforms to permit greater provincial and local economic autonomy and private economic activities. Any change in political or economic conditions may substantially adversely affect these reform initiatives and, in turn, the Company. Sales in the PRC, expressed as a percentage of total revenue in Fiscal 2010 unchanged as compared with Fiscal 2009.  See Item 3D. “Key Information — Risk Factors.”

 

Results from Operations

 

The following operating and financial review should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and notes thereto appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report. All financial data referred to in the following discussion has been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“US GAAP”).

 

The following table presents selected statement of operations data expressed in thousands of US$ and as a percentage of revenue for the Company’s fiscal years indicated below:

 

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2010

 

2009

 

2008

 

2007

 

2006

 

Revenue

 

22,305

 

100

%

27,336

 

100

%

31,738

 

100

%

27,230

 

100

%

27,161

 

100

%

Cost of revenue

 

16,564

 

74.3

%

20,876

 

76.4

%

24,154

 

76.1

%

20,398

 

74.9

%

20,606

 

75.9

%

Gross Profit

 

5,741

 

25.7

%

6,460

 

23.6

%

7,584

 

23.9

%

6,832

 

25.1

%

6,555

 

24.1

%

Selling and administrative Expenses

 

7,118

 

31.9

%

6,608

 

24.2

%

7,214

 

22.7

%

6,566

 

24.1

%

5,961

 

21.9

%

(Loss)/income before income Taxes

 

(1,326

)

-5.9

%

(40

)

-0.1

%

560

 

1.8

%

664

 

2.4

%

835

 

3.1

%

Income taxes

 

154

 

0.7

%

218

 

0.8

%

321

 

1.0

%

144

 

0.5

%

156

 

0.6

%

Equity in profit of Affiliates

 

723

 

3.2

%

595

 

2.2

%

273

 

0.9

%

247

 

0.9

%

 

0.0

%

Net (loss)/income

 

(757

)

-3.4

%

337

 

1.2

%

512

 

1.6

%

767

 

2.8

%

679

 

2.5

%

Net income attributable to Non-controlling interest

 

(330

)

1.5

%

(305

)

1.1

%

(363

)

1.1

%

(345

)

1.3

%

(318

)

1.2

%

Net (loss)/income attributable to the Company

 

(1,087

)

-4.9

%

32

 

0.1

%

149

 

0.5

%

422

 

1.5

%

361

 

1.3

%

 

Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2010 Compared to Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2009

 

Revenue; Gross Profit and Cost of Revenue. Revenue decreased by approximately US$ 5,031,000 or 18.4% to approximately US$22,305,000 in Fiscal 2010 from approximately US$27,336,000 in Fiscal 2009. The revenue from trading and manufacturing activities decreased by approximately US$4,581,000 and the revenue from engineering activities decreased by US$450,000. These decreases were due primarily to most foreign suppliers want to market and sell their products directly or through many distributors in China instead of using the Company as their sole distributor as in the past and Guangxi wastewater treatment contract in the face amount of US$3.2 Million, was delayed due to a serious fatal traffic accident in September 2010. The Guangxi wastewater treatment contract was scheduled to be substantially completed in Fiscal 2010, it is now scheduled to be delayed until August or September of Fiscal 2011. Although the Company had received a 20% down payment, for this project in Fiscal 2010, no revenue could be recognized in that fiscal year. Pact-Yixing’s revenues of approximately US$8,334,000 and US$8,654,000 were included in our revenues in Fiscal 2010 and Fiscal 2009, respectively.

 

Gross profits decreased by approximately US$719,000 or 11.1% to approximately US$5,741,000 for Fiscal 2010 as compared to approximately US$6,460,000 for Fiscal 2009. During Fiscal 2010, the Company’s cost of revenue was approximately US$16,564,000, or 74.3% of revenues, in comparison to approximately US$20,876,000, or 76.4% for Fiscal 2009.  Cost of revenue expressed as a percentage of revenue decreased by 2.1% in Fiscal 2010 as compared with Fiscal 2009.  The gross profit margin percentage increase was due principally to improvement in gross margin of engineering revenue. Yixing-Pact contributed approximately US$2,831,000 to our gross profit margin in Fiscal 2010, an increase of approximately US$447,000 from Fiscal 2009.

 

Selling and Administrative Expenses. Selling and administrative expenses were approximately US$7,118,000 in Fiscal 2010, an increase of approximately US$510,000 or 7.7% from approximately US$6,608,000 in Fiscal 2009. The increase was principally due to the increase of expenses for engineering activities of approximately US$558,000, including a non-recurring expenses of approximately US$164,000 as consequence of the fatal accident (funeral, travel, legal and similar expenses). However, the expenses for trading and manufacturing activities decreased by approximately US$49,000 as the Company continued to consolidate its trading business despite the redundancy cost of approximately US$81,000 incurred during the year.

 

Equity in Profit of Affiliates. Equity in profit of affiliates of approximately US$723,000 represented our share of net profit after taxes of Blue Sky and Jia Huan.

 

Interest Income. Interest income increased by approximately US$5,000 or 13.5% to approximately US$42,000 in Fiscal 2010 from approximately US$37,000 for Fiscal 2009. The decrease was primarily due to the rise in interest rates.

 

Other Income. Other income decreased by approximately US$62,000 or 87% to approximately US$9,000 in Fiscal 2010 from approximately US$71,000 in Fiscal 2009. The decrease in other income was principally due to a foreign exchange loss of approximately US$17,000 in Fiscal 2010 as compared to foreign exchange gain of approximately US$73,000 in Fiscal 2009.

 

Income Taxes. Taxes decreased by US$64,000 to approximately US$154,000 in Fiscal 2010 from approximately US$218,000 in Fiscal 2009. This decrease was primarily the result of decreased taxable profits.

 

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Net Income. Income from continuing operations decreased by approximately US$1,119,000 to a net loss of approximately US$1,087,000 in Fiscal 2010 from net income of approximately US$32,000 in Fiscal 2009. The decrease was primarily due to the decrease in gross profit resulting from the decline in total revenues as the effect of further declines in revenue from trading and manufacturing activities and delays in completion of some engineering projects due in part to the fatal traffic accident and increases in selling and administrative expenses for engineering activities and the 3.3% rate of inflation in the PRC and the need to grant reasonable salary increases to retain qualified employees.

 

Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2009 Compared to Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2008

 

Revenue; Gross Profit and Cost of Revenue. Revenue decreased by approximately US$ 4,402,000 or 13.9% to approximately US$27,336,000 in Fiscal 2009 from approximately US$31,738,000 in Fiscal 2008. The revenue from trading and manufacturing activities decreased by approximately US$3,113,000 and the revenue from engineering activities decreased by US$1,289,000. These decreases were due primarily to the global economic downturn and additional key suppliers selling into the China market through distributors other than the Company. Pact-Yixing’s revenues of approximately US$8,654,000 and US$9,260,000 were included in our revenues in Fiscal 2009 and Fiscal 2008, respectively.

 

Gross profits decreased by approximately US$1,124,000 or 14.8% to approximately US$6,460,000 for Fiscal 2009 as compared to approximately US$7,584,000 for Fiscal 2008. During Fiscal 2009, the Company’s cost of revenue was approximately US$20,876,000, or 76.4% of revenues, in comparison to approximately US$24,154,000, or 76.1% for Fiscal 2008.  Cost of revenue expressed as a percentage of revenue increased by 0.3% in Fiscal 2009 as compared with Fiscal 2008.  The slight gross profit margin percentage decrease was due principally to greater competition in a poor economic environment. Yixing-Pact contributed approximately US$2,384,000 to our gross profit margin in Fiscal 2009, a decrease of approximately US$226,000 from Fiscal 2008.

 

Selling and Administrative Expenses. Selling and administrative expenses were approximately US$6,608,000 in Fiscal 2009, an decrease of approximately US$606,000 or 8.4% from approximately US$7,214,000 in Fiscal 2008. The decrease was principally due to the decrease of expenses for trading and manufacturing activities of approximately US$484,000 as the Company continued to consolidate its trading business.

 

Equity in Profit of Affiliates. Equity in profit of affiliates of approximately US$595,000 represented our share of net profit after taxes of Blue Sky and Jia Huan.

 

Interest Income. Interest income decreased by approximately US$8,000 or 17.8% to approximately US$37,000 in Fiscal 2009 from approximately US$45,000 for Fiscal 2008. The decrease was primarily due to the drop in interest rates.

 

Other Income. Other income decreased by approximately US$74,000 or 51% to approximately US$71,000 in Fiscal 2009 from approximately US$145,000 in Fiscal 2008. The decrease in other income was principally due to a decrease of foreign exchange gain of approximately US$73,000.

 

Income Taxes. Taxes decreased by US$103,000 to approximately US$218,000 in Fiscal 2009 from approximately US$321,000 in Fiscal 2008. This decrease was primarily the result of decreased taxable profits.

 

Net Income. Income from continuing operations decreased by approximately US$117,000 or 78.5% to approximately US$32,000 in Fiscal 2009 from approximately US$149,000 in Fiscal 2008.  The decrease was primarily due to the decrease in gross profit resulting from the drop in total revenues as the effect of global financial crisis that had a significant negative impact on the Company’s business in China, partially offset by the decrease in selling and administrative expenses.  As a consequence, our income before income taxes declined by approximately US$600,000 from Fiscal 2008 to Fiscal 2009, resulting in a loss before income taxes of approximately (US$40,000) in Fiscal 2009.  This US$600,000 decline was partially offset by an increase in our equity in the profits of our affiliates, increase profit contribution from affiliates and other factors discussed above.

 

Item 5B.          Liquidity and Capital Resources

 

The Company has primarily used its funds to finance accounts receivable, inventories, and capital expenditures including purchases of property, office furniture and equipment, computers and calibration equipment. The Company has historically met its cash requirements from cash flows from operations, short-term borrowings, bank lines of credit, and long-term mortgage bank loans. The Company expects, but can make no assurances that its present cash reserves, cash from operations, existing available bank credit facilities and proceeds from the issuance of our ordinary shares pursuant to stock option exercises would be sufficient to fund its future capital expenditure requirements. Working capital at the end of

 

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Fiscal 2010 and Fiscal 2009 were approximately US$6,444,000 and US$8,203,000, respectively.

 

During Fiscal 2009, the Company generated net cash of approximately US$240,000 from its operating activities from net income and decreases in inventories, accounts receivable, prepayments and other current assets while funding a decrease in accounts payable. During Fiscal 2010, the Company used net cash of approximately US$284,000 in its operating activities as a result of: a net loss of US$1,087,000 and increases of approximately in prepayments and other current assets of US$923,000, in equity in profit of affiliates of US$723,000, net inventories of US$54,000 and decrease in accounts payable of US$738,000 that failed to be offset by decrease in accounts receivable of US$2,389,000, and increases in other payables and accrued expenses of US$418,000 and US$434,000 in other items.

 

During Fiscal 2010 and Fiscal 2009, the Company used approximately US$710,000 and US$124,000 in investing activities, respectively.  The Company used approximately US$112,000 and US$118,000 to purchase facilities and equipment in Fiscal 2010 and Fiscal 2009, respectively.  During Fiscal 2010 and Fiscal 2009, the Company used approximately US$348,000 and US$73,000, respectively, as restricted cash to issue performance guarantees to its customers through its banks as a result of an increase in projects requiring performance guarantees.  During Fiscal 2010 and Fiscal 2009, Yixing-Pact paid dividends of approximately US$Nil and US$147,000, respectively to non-controlling interest shareholders. During Fiscal 2010, the Company used approximately US$73,000 to acquire additional 2% equity interest in Pact-Yixing and used approximately US$262,000 to maintain its 20% equity interest in Blue Sky as a result of capital expansion resulting from the issuance of additional shares to employees of Blue Sky. During Fiscal 2008, the Company used approximately US$2,610,000 to acquire a 20% equity interest in Jia Huan. During Fiscal 2007, the Company used approximately US$4,151,000 to acquire 20% equity interest in Blue Sky. Additionally, a final payment of US$692,000 was made in June 2008, based on Blue Sky’s net profits for its fiscal year ended December 31, 2007. During Fiscal 2010 and Fiscal 2009, the Company received dividends of approximately US$Nil and US$58,000, respectively from Blue Sky and approximately US$76,000 and US$149,000 respectively from Jia Huan.

 

The Company received approximately US$33,000 and US$6,000, respectively, in Fiscal 2010 and Fiscal 2009 from financing activities resulting from the issuance of its ordinary shares resulting from the exercise of stock options. The Company used approximately US$105,000 and US$253,000, respectively, in Fiscal 2010 and Fiscal 2009 for financing the purchase of its ordinary shares as treasury stock. The Company had various banking facilities available for overdraft, import and export credits and foreign exchange contracts from which the Company could have accessed up to approximately US$2,564,000 at December 31, 2010. The aforementioned available credit facilities were obtained on the conditions that, among other things, the Company not create a charge or lien on its other assets in favor of third parties without such bank’s consent, and the Company maintaining a certain level of net worth.

 

Cash decreased from approximately US$7,025,000 at the end of Fiscal 2009 to approximately US$6,130,000 at the end of Fiscal 2010. The principal reasons for the decrease in cash were negative cash flows resulting from operating loss, purchase of plant and equipment, additional investments in subsidiaries and affiliates and purchase of treasury stock.

 

The Company’s net accounts receivable decreased from approximately US$6,063,000 at the end of Fiscal 2009 to approximately US$3,674,000 at the end of Fiscal 2010.  This was principally the result of the decrease in sales revenue and the effort spent in receivables collection during Fiscal 2010. The amount of receivables subject to collection is expected to be received under normal commercial trading terms.

 

The Company’s inventory increased from approximately US$1,266,000 at the end of Fiscal 2009 to approximately US$1,320,000 at the end of Fiscal 2010 due to increase in inventory received from suppliers around the end of Fiscal 2010 but could not be delivered to the customers during the same year.

 

The Company’s capital expenditures were approximately US$118,000 and US$112,000 in Fiscal 2009 and Fiscal 2010, respectively. Capital expenditures during Fiscal 2009 and Fiscal 2010 were incurred primarily in connection with the purchase of office equipment, furniture and fixtures. The Company continues to develop new products, for example, non-chemical ballast water treatment system and seek opportunities to form Joint Ventures with suppliers for assembly operations or engineering operations. If such products developments or Joint Ventures are indeed made, the Company may expect to incur significantly larger capital expenditures, for which the Company presently intends, but as to which no assurance can be made, to use existing cash reserves, cash from operations, available bank credit facilities and proceeds from the issuance of our ordinary shares to fund such capital expenditures.

 

Goodwill

 

Goodwill related to the engineering segment which is profitable.  As of December 31, 2010, we completed the annual impairment test.  Based on the result of the first step of the test, the Company determined that there was no impairment of goodwill.

 

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Anticipated Future Resources and Uses of Cash

 

The Company has historically funded its working capital, capital expenditure, investing and expansions needs from operations, available bank credit facilities and proceeds from the issuances of our ordinary shares and expects to continue funding its Fiscal 2011 these requirements from operations, available bank credit facilities and proceeds from the exercise of options. The Company may use its funds to form strategic alliances with third parties, invest in product research and development, or expand its sales offices or, with third parties, seek to acquire new products or businesses or form strategic alliances. The Company expects, but can make no assurances that its present cash reserves, cash from operations and existing available bank credit facilities would be sufficient to fund its future cash requirements.

 

Inflation

 

The Company believes generally that past declining rates of inflation in the PRC have had a positive effect on its results from operations.  As a result of the recent rise in the rate of inflation in the PRC, we anticipate increases in the overhead costs of our PRC affiliates and offices.  The Company believes, although no assurance can be given, that as credit restrictions are gradually lifted, it will be able to increase prices in the market for its products and thus realize increased profit margins.

 

Critical Accounting Policies

 

Revenue Recognition

 

Pursuant to the revenue recognition criteria set forth in Securities and Exchange Commission’s Staff Accounting Bulletin (“SAB”) No. 104: “Revenue Recognition”, the Company recognizes revenue when it is realized or realizable and earned. The Company considers revenue realized or realizable and earned when it has persuasive evidence of an arrangement, the product has been delivered, the sales price is fixed or determinable and collectability is reasonably assured. For certain products where installation is necessary, revenue is recognized upon completion of installation.  Revenue earned from customer support, which represents a minor percentage of total revenues, it is recognized when such services are provided.

 

Revenues and profits in long term fixed price contracts or engineering income are recognised using the percentage of completion method in accordance with FASB ASC Subtopic 605-35, Revenue Recognition — Construction-Type and Production-Type Contracts, (previously Statement of Position (“SOP”) 81-1, “Accounting for Performance of Construction-Type and Certain Production-Type Contracts.”). This approach primarily based on contract costs incurred to date compared with total estimated contract costs. Changes to total estimated contract costs or losses, if any, are recognised in the period they are determined. Revenues recognised in excess of amounts billed are classified as costs and estimated earnings in excess of billings on uncompleted contracts. Essentially all of such amounts are expected to be billed and collected within one year and are classified as current assets. Billings in excess of costs and estimated earnings on uncompleted contracts are classified as current liabilities. When reasonably dependable estimates cannot be made, construction contract revenues are recognised using the completed contract method.

 

Inventory Valuation

 

The Company writes down its inventory for estimated obsolescence or unmarketable inventory equal to the difference between the cost of inventory and the estimated market value based upon assumptions about future demand and market conditions. If actual future demand or market conditions are less favorable than those projected by management, additional write-downs may be required.

 

Deferred Taxes

 

As part of the process of preparing its consolidated financial statements, the Company is required to estimate its income taxes and tax bases of assets and liabilities in each of the jurisdictions in which it operates. This process involves the Company estimating its current tax exposure together with assessing temporary differences resulting from its differing treatment of items for tax and accounting purposes. These differences result in deferred tax assets and liabilities, which are included in the Company’s consolidated balance sheet. The Company must then assess the likelihood that its deferred tax assets will be recovered from future taxable income, and, to the extent the Company believes that recovery is more unlikely than likely, it must establish a valuation allowance. To the extent the Company establishes a valuation allowance or increases this allowance in a period, it must include an expense within the tax provision in the statement of operations.

 

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

 

In January 2010, FASB issued Accounting Standard Update (“ASU”) 2010-6 Improving Disclosures about Fair Measurements (“ASU 2010-6”). ASU 2010-6 provides amendments to subtopic 820-10 that require separate disclosure of significant transfers in and out of Level 1 and Level 2 fair value measurements and the presentation of separate information regarding purchases, sales, issuances and settlements for Level 3 fair value measurements. Additionally, ASU 2010-6 provides amendments to subtopic 820-10 that clarify existing disclosures about the level of disaggregation and inputs and valuation techniques. ASU 2010-6 is effective for financial statements issued for interim and annual periods ending after December 15, 2010. The Company does not expect the adoption of ASU 2010-06 to have a material impact on its consolidated results of operations or financial position.

 

In April 2010, the FASB issued ASU 2010-13, Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Effect of Denominating the Exercise Price of a Share-Based Payment Award in the Currency of the Market in Which the Underlying Equity Security Trades. This update provides amendments to Topic 718 to clarify that an employee share-based payment award with an exercise price denominated in currency of a market in which a substantial porting of the entity’s equity securities trades should not be considered to contain a condition that is not a market, performance or

 

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service condition. Therefore, an entity would not classify such an award as a liability if it otherwise qualifies as equity. The amendments in this ASU are effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning on or after December 15, 2010. The Company does not expect the adoption of ASU 2010-13 to have a material impact on its consolidated results of operations or financial position.

 

The Company does not believe that any other recently issued and adopted, but not yet effective, accounting standards should have a material effect on the accompanying financial statements.

 

Item 5C.          Research and Development, Patents and Licenses

 

During Fiscal 2010, Fiscal 2009 and Fiscal 2008, the Company expensed approximately US$24,000, US$99,000, and US$89,000, respectively, on the development of its products.  It is anticipated that an additional US$200,000 in research and development costs will be expended on similar projects and potential research and development projects for the development of air and water testing equipment and monitoring equipment during Fiscal 2011.

 

Item 5D.          Trend Information

 

There are increasing demands in the PRC for clean water, clean air, greater industrial pollution controls, waste management and electricity.  We also see additional distributors competing with us.  However, given the political situation in the PRC, trends could quickly disappear and we do not know if they will continue in the future.  We note that, as evidenced by our acquisition of Pact-Yixing, we are placing greater emphasis on developing our engineering solution business in an effort to capitalize on these increased demands (clean water, pollution controls and waste management).

 

The Company believes that the expenses incurred in product development may result in increases in revenue but such increases are unlikely to allow for a recovery of the expenses for approximately the next two years.

 

Item 5E.          Off Balance Sheet Arrangements

 

None.

 

Item 5F.          Tabular Disclosure of Contractual Obligations

 

Contractual
Obligations

 

Total

 

Less than
1 Year

 

1-3 Years

 

4-5 Years

 

After
5 Years

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating Leases

 

US$

111,000

 

US$

110,000

 

US$

1,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Contractual Cash Obligations

 

US$

111,000

 

US$

110,000

 

US$

1,000

 

 

 

 

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6.           DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES

 

Item 6A.          Directors and Senior Management

 

Information concerning the Directors and Executive Officers of the Company are as follows:

 

Name

 

Age

 

Position

 

 

 

 

 

T.C. Leung

 

67

 

Chairman of the Board of Directors and Chief Executive Officer

 

 

 

 

 

Jerry Wong

 

52

 

Director and Chief Financial Officer

 

 

 

 

 

Alex Sham

 

47

 

Director

 

 

 

 

 

Y.K. Liang

 

81

 

Director

 

 

 

 

 

Ka Chong Cheang

 

82

 

Director

 

 

 

 

 

Xu Hong Wang

 

43

 

Director

 

 

 

 

 

Li Da Weng

 

66

 

Director

 

Set forth below is a brief background of the executive officers and directors based upon the information supplied by them to the Company:

 

T.C. Leung has been Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board of Directors of both the Company and Far East since their inception. Before establishing Far East, Mr. Leung was an engineer for English Electric in England, from 1965 to 1968, and Lockheed Aircraft in Hong Kong, from 1968 to 1970. Mr. Leung also served as managing director of Eurotherm (Far East) Ltd. (“Eurotherm”) between 1971 and 1992. From 1988 until he retired in February 2005, Mr. Leung had also served as managing director of Eurotherm Hong Kong. Mr. Leung received a Masters degree in Business Administration from the University of East Asia, Macau in 1986 and is a Chartered Engineer, a title bestowed upon a member of the Council of Engineering Institutions in the United Kingdom.

 

Jerry Wong has served as Director and Chief Financial Officer of Far East since 1994 and has been with Far East since 1987. Mr. Wong has been the Chief Financial Officer and a Director of the Company since its inception. From 1985 until 1987, Mr. Wong worked for MUA Agencies Ltd., a subsidiary of a Hong Kong publicly listed company engaged in the insurance business, as deputy manager of its secretarial, legal and accounting department. From 1981 until 1985, Mr. Wong served as a senior accountant in Price Waterhouse-Hong Kong. He is a Fellow of the Association of Chartered Certified Accountants in the United Kingdom and a Certified Public Accountant in Hong Kong.

 

Alex Sham has been a Director of the Company since its inception. Mr. Sham joined Far East in 1988 and has been its Sales Manager since 1993 and became a Director of Far East in 1996. Mr. Sham received a Bachelor of Science in Applied Chemistry from Hong Kong Baptist University in 1990. Prior to joining Far East, Mr. Sham was employed by the Environmental Protection Department of the Hong Kong Government from 1986 until 1988.  Mr. Sham received a Master’s Degree in Business Administration from the University of Adelaide in 2003.

 

Y.K. Liang has been a Director of the Company since February 1998. Mr. Liang is a director of Wong Liang Consultants Ltd. (“Consultants”) and a member of the certified public accounting firm of Y.K. Liang & Co. (“LCO”). Mr. Liang has been associated with both Consultants and LCO for more than the past five years. Consultants is a general business consulting firm.

 

Ka Chong Cheang has been a Director of the Company since December 2005. From 1952 until 1977, he had been shipping manager for John Swire & Sons (Hong Kong) Ltd., a firm engaged in the importing and exporting shipping industry.  For more than the past five years, Mr. Chong has been a business consultant.

 

Xu Hong Wang has been a director of the Company since August 2002. Mr. Wang is the East China sales manager of Euro Tech (Far East) Limited, a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company, since mid 1994. From mid 1997 until joining Euro Tech, he was employed as a Research Associate and Lecturer at the Analysis and Research Center of Shanghai’s Tongji University. Wang Xu Hong received Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees in Science from Fudan University in 1984 and 1988, respectively.

 

Li Da Weng, from 1993 until January 2005, was the General Director of the Yangtze Valley Water Resources Protection Bureau (“YVWRPB”).  He was employed by the YVWRPB in various positions, for more than 25 years,before

 

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he became the General Director in 1993.  Since 2005, he has been the Secretary General of Yangtze Forum, a group of governments, businesses, universities and research institutes meeting on occasion to discuss issues on protecting and developing the Yangtze River, and since 1994 he has been a member of the Science and Technical Committee of Changjiang Water Resources Commission.  Mr. Li Da Weng graduated from Hengyang Mining and Metallurgy College (now known as Nanhua University) in 1965 with a Bachelor’s Degree in Analytical Chemistry.  From December 1981 to December 1983, he was a visiting scholar at the Canada’s Centre for Inland Waters, National Water Research Institute.

 

Directors of the Company serve until the next annual meeting of shareholders of the Company and until their successors are elected and duly qualified. Officers of the Company are elected annually by the Board of Directors and serve at the discretion of the Board of Directors.

 

None of the Company’s directors, officers or beneficial owners of ten percent or more of its Common Stock are required to file any reports pursuant to Section 16(a) of the Exchange Act.

 

The Company had 2 meetings of its Board of Directors during Fiscal 2010, while its Audit Committee had 5 meetings during Fiscal 2010.

 

There are no material legal proceedings involving any director, officer or affiliate of the Company, owner of record or beneficially of more than five percent of the Company’s Common Stock or any associate of an foregoing.

 

Key Employees

 

George Hayek, Managing Director.  He is the founder of Pact and Yixing and is a civil engineer (1967) and post-graduate certificate holder in sanitary engineering and environmental management from the American University of Beirut and the University of California at Irvine (in 1971 and 1988, respectively).  Since 1971, he has occupied several key posts in water and waste-water treatment companies in the USA, the UK, Spain, Cyprus, The Middle East, Southeast Asia and the last 14 years in the PRC.  From 1998 to date, he has been the managing director of Pact.  His international experience helped Pact in securing most of the contracts with European and American multinational industries in the PRC.

 

Yvonne Xia manages Pact and Yixing’s Procurement Department, as well as assisting the managing director in management of the various departments. She joined Pact-Yixing at the time of their formation in 1998.  Ms. Xia is an environmental engineering graduate from Qing Hua University of Beijing (1989) and an EMBA graduate from the Olin School of Management of the Washington University (2003). She has several positions of increasing responsibility including management of engineering, sales, projects, procurement and projects while with Pact-Yixing.

 

Item 6B.Executive Compensation.

 

From the Company and its subsidiaries, for services rendered in all capacities to the Company and its subsidiaries during Fiscal 2010, Fiscal 2009 and Fiscal 2008, T.C. Leung the Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer received a yearly salary of US$154,000 and George Hayek, a Key Employee of the Company, received a yearly salary of US$110,000. There is no other information with respect to the compensation paid by the Company and its subsidiaries, for services rendered in all capacities to the Company and its subsidiaries during Fiscal 2010, Fiscal 2009 and Fiscal 2008 to the Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer and a Key Employee of the Company. No other executive officer or employee received in excess of US$100,000 as cash compensation during those three fiscal years.

 

Compensation of Directors. Directors of the do not receive compensation for their services as directors; however, Board of Directors authorize the payment of compensation to the Directors for their attendance at regular and annual meetings of the Board and for attendance at committee meetings of the Board as is customary for similar companies. Directors are reimbursed for their reasonable out-of-pocket expenses in connection with their duties to the Company.

 

Pension Plan. Prior to December 1, 2000, the Company had only one defined contribution pension plan for all its Hong Kong employees. Under this plan, all employees were entitled to pension benefits equal to their own contributions 50% to 100% of individual fund account balances contributed by the Company, depending on their years of service with the Company. The Company was required to make specific contributions at approximately 10% of the basic salaries of the employees to an independent fund management company.

 

With the introduction of the Mandatory Provident Fund Scheme, a defined contribution scheme managed by an independent trustee on December 1, 2000, each of the Company and its employees who joined the Company subsequently makes monthly contributions to the scheme at 5% of the employee’s cash income as defined under the Mandatory Provident Fund legislation. Contributions of both the Company and its employees are subject to a maximum of HK$1,000

 

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per month and thereafter contributions are voluntary and are not subject to any limitation. The Company and its employees made their first contributions in December 2000.

 

As stipulated by the rules and regulations in the PRC, the Company contributes to state-sponsored retirement plans for its employees in the PRC. The Company contributes approximately 10% to 22% of the basic salaries of its employees, and has no further obligations for the actual payment of pension or post-retirement benefits beyond the annual contributions. The state-sponsored retirement plans are responsible for the entire pension obligations payable to retired employees.

 

During the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008, the aggregate contributions of the Company to the aforementioned pension plans and retirement benefit schemes were approximately US$390,000, US$327,000 and US$291,000, respectively.

 

Company Option Plans. The Company’s 2000 Officers and Directors Plan and 2002 Officers and Directors Plan ( collectively referred to as the “Officers Plans”) provides for the grant of options to acquire Ordinary Shares to the Company’s executive officers and directors and persons holding the same positions with the Company’s subsidiaries. The 2000 Employees Plan and 2002 Employees Plan (collectively referred to as the “Employees Plan”) provides for the grant of options to acquire Ordinary Shares to key employees of the Company and its subsidiaries. A 2000 stock option plan provides for the issuance of options to officers, directors and employees as the Company’s Chairman of the Board of Directors and Chief Executive Officer may direct (the “2000 Stock Option Plan”). All foregoing plans are collectively referred to as the “Plans”.

 

1,195,740, 692,850 and 1,637,160 shares had been originally authorized for issuance under the 2000 Stock Option Plan, Employees Plan and the Officers Plans, respectively.

 

The Board of Directors or a committee (the “Committee”) appointed by the Board of Directors administers the Plans. The Board of Directors or the Committee also has the authority to delegate decisions with respect to Options granted to key employees under the Employees Plan who are not elected officers or directors of the Company or its subsidiaries and to delegate decisions with respect to key employees to the Chief Executive Officer.

 

Any decision by the Committee or the Chief Executive Officer to grant an award under the Plans is subject to ratification by the Board of Directors of the Company. The Board is also to ratify any decision that effects the terms or conditions of options awarded to elected officers or directors of the Company or its subsidiaries.

 

In the event that the Ordinary Shares of the Company are subdivided or consolidated as a result of a reorganization, stock split, payment of a stock dividend, reverse stock split or other change in the Company’s capitalization, the Committee or the Board of Directors has the authority to make appropriate adjustments in the Ordinary Shares available for issuance under the Plans, the number of shares subject to options that may have been or may be awarded to any participant in any 12 month period, the price, number of Ordinary Shares or kind of securities subject to outstanding options, or the terms of such options in order to prevent dilution or enlargement of rights under the options. In addition, the Board may also change the kind of securities available for grant under the Plans to reflect any such corporate changes.

 

The Committee or the Chief Executive Officer has the discretion to determine which employees constitute key employees to whom options will be awarded under the Employees Plan.

 

The Committee or Chief Executive Officer, as the case may be, determines the number of Ordinary Shares subject to options to be granted.

 

The purchase price per share of the Ordinary Shares to be paid upon the exercise of the option must be at least 100% of the fair market value of an Ordinary Shares on the date on which the option was granted. Under the Plans, if the Ordinary Shares are principally traded on a national securities exchange or the Nasdaq Global Market or Capital Market at the time of grant, the Company is required to use, at fair market value, the average of the closing prices of the Ordinary Shares for the ten consecutive trading days immediately before the date of grant. If the Ordinary Shares are traded on a national securities exchange or the Nasdaq Stock Global Market or Capital Market, but no closing prices are reported for such ten-day period, or if the Ordinary Shares are principally traded in the over-the-counter market, the Company is required to use, as fair market value, the average of the mean between the bid and asked prices reported for the Company’s Ordinary Shares at the close of trading during such ten-day period before the date of grant. If the Ordinary Shares are traded neither on a national securities exchange, one of the Nasdaq’s Markets nor in the over-the-counter market or if bid and asked prices are otherwise not available, the fair market value of the Ordinary Shares on the date of grant will be determined in good faith by the Committee or the Board of Directors, as the case may be.

 

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The Board of Directors or the Committee, as the case may be, or, to the extent that such authority has been delegated to the Chief Executive Officer, the Chief Executive Officer determines, at the time of grant, when each option granted under the Plans will become exercisable. Notwithstanding the foregoing, all options held by a key employee of the Company or its subsidiaries become immediately exercisable, whether or not exercisable at the time, upon the death or disability.

 

No option is to be exercisable more than ten years from the date the option is granted.

 

Payment of Exercise Price for Options. Under the Plans, payment for shares purchased upon exercise of an option may be made by any of the following methods, subject to certain requirements: (1) in cash, paid by either the option holder or a broker to whom the optionee has tendered the option; (2) in Ordinary Shares valued at the fair market value of such shares on the date of exercise, provided that such shares were held by the option holder for not less than six months prior to the date of exercise of the option; (3) by any other medium of payment that the Board, Committee or the Chief Executive Officer, as applicable, has authorized at the time of grant (other than the withholding of shares issuable upon the exercise of options); or (4) by any combination of the preceding methods.

 

Transfer Of Options. Under the Plans, an option may not be sold, assigned or otherwise transferred except to:

 

·

the spouse or lineal descendant of a plan participant;

 

 

·

the trustee of a trust for the primary benefit of a plan participant’s spouse or lineal descendant;

 

 

·

a partnership of which a plan participant and lineal descendants are the only partners; or

 

 

·

a charitable organization.

 

These assignments are only permitted if the assigning option holder does not receive any compensation in connection with the assignment and the assignment is expressly approved by the Board or Committee, as the case may be.

 

The Company indemnifies the members of any Committee and its delegates and the Chief Executive Officer against (1) reasonable expenses incurred in connection with the defense of any action, suit or proceeding to which they may be a party by reason of any action taken or failure to act in connection with the Plans, and (2) all amounts paid by them in settlement of or satisfaction of a judgment entered in any such action, suit or proceeding, except in cases where such a person is adjudged liable for gross negligence or gross misconduct in the performance of his or her duties.

 

The Board may terminate, suspend, or amend the Plans at any time without the authorization of shareholders to the extent allowed by law or the rules of any market on which the Company’s shares are then listed or quoted.

 

The sole Officer and Director of the Company to hold remaining (unexercised) options to purchase Ordinary Shares of the Company is T.C. Leung, who holds 170,000 options with a per share exercise price of US$0.5857. Said options were granted pursuant to the 2002 Officers and Directors Plan and will expire in November 2012.

 

As of December 31, 2010, 1.541,920 had been exercised, including 300,300 options, 397,300 options and 205,800 options exercised by Mr. Leung at prices of US$0.5787, US$0.5857 and US$0.8191 per share, respectively and 42,000 options exercised by Xu Hong Wang at a price of US$0.587 per share.

 

The Company has set forth in this Report all required disclosure of additional compensation to its executive officers and directors including personal benefits and securities or properties paid or distributed which was not offered on the same terms to all full time employees during Fiscal 2008, Fiscal 2009 and Fiscal 2010.

 

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Changes in outstanding options under various plans mentioned above were as follows:

 

 

 

As of December 31,

 

 

 

2010

 

2009

 

2008

 

 

 

Number
of
Options

 

Weighted
average

exercise
price

 

Number
of
Options

 

Weighted
average

exercise
price

 

Number of
Options

 

Weighted
average
exercise
price

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Outstanding, beginning of year

 

522,270

 

0.85

 

583,470

 

0.84

 

1,290,840

 

1.74

 

Granted

 

 

 

 

 

205,000

 

2.56

 

Cancelled/Expired

 

(217,345

)

(1.16

)

(51,200

)

(0.87

)

(704,000

)

(3.07

)

Exercised

 

(50,925

)

(0.64

)

(10,000

)

(0.59

)

(208,370

)

(0.60

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Outstanding, end of year

 

254,000

 

0.61

 

522,270

 

0.85

 

583,470

 

0.84

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exercisable, end of year

 

254,000

 

0.61

 

522,270

 

0.85

 

583,470

 

0.84

 

 

As of December 31, 2010, the options outstanding and exercisable had exercise prices in the range of US$0.5857 to US$0.7618 and a weighted average unexpired life of approximately 1.8 years.

 

As of December 31, 2010

 

Shares

 

IntrinsicValue
US$’ 000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total outstanding in-the-money options

 

254,000

 

159

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total vested in-the-money options

 

254,000

 

159

 

 

The total intrinsic value of share option exercised for the twelve months ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008 were approximately US$50,000, US$8,000 and US$374,000, respectively.  As of December 31, 2010, there was no unrecognized stock-based compensation expense related to unvested stock options.

 

The Company adopted the provisions of ASC 718-10, which requires us to recognize expense related to the fair value of our stock-based compensation awards, including employee stock options.

 

The Black-Scholes option-pricing model requires the input of subjective assumptions, including the expected volatility of stock price.  Because changes in subjective input assumptions can materially effect the fair value estimate, in directors’ opinion, the existing model may not necessarily provide a realizable measure of the fair value of the stock options.

 

Item 6C.                Board Practices

 

The term of each of the Company’s directors expires at the election and qualification of their successors at the next annual meeting of the Company’s shareholders, anticipated to be held in August of this year. Of the Company’s seven directors, all were re-elected at the Company’s last annual meeting of shareholders in September 2010.

 

The Board has a standing Audit Committee to assist the Board in carrying out its duties. The Audit Committee has a written charter approved by the Board. The chair of the Audit Committee determines the meeting agenda of the Audit Committee. The Audit Committee members receive materials in advance of Committee meetings allowing them to prepare for the meeting.

 

During Fiscal 2010, the Audit Committee met 5 times, being attended by all members.

 

The Audit Committee assists the Board in monitoring the Company’s financial accounting, controls, planning and reporting. Among its duties, the Audit Committee:

 

·

reviews the Company’s auditing, accounting and financial reporting process;

 

 

·

reviews the adequacy of the Company’s internal controls;

 

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·

reviews the independence, fee arrangements, audit scope, and performance of the Company’s independent auditors, and recommends the appointment or replacement of independent auditors to the Board of Directors;

 

 

·

reviews and approves all non-audit work, if any, to be performed by the auditors;

 

 

·

reviews the scope of our internal auditing and the adequacy of the organizational structure and qualifications of the internal auditing staff;

 

 

·

reviews, before release, the audited financial statements and operating and financial review and prospects contained in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 20-F, and recommends that the Board of Directors submit these items to the shareholders’ meeting for approval;

 

 

·

provides an open avenue of communication among the Company’s independent auditors, financial and senior management, the internal audit function and the Board of Directors;

 

 

·

reviews and updates the Company’s Code of Business Conduct and Ethics and ensure that there is a system to enforce same and that this Code complies with all applicable rules and regulations;

 

 

·

ensures that the Company’s management and auditors assess current financial reporting issues and practices; and

 

 

·

reviews and pre-approves both audit and non-audit services to be provided by the Company’s auditors.

 

The Audit Committee is currently composed of Y.K. Liang, Ka Chong Cheang and Li Da Weng.  The Audit Committee’s “financial expert” is Y.K. Liang.  The Board has determined that the membership of the Audit Committee meets the current independence requirements of the NASDAQ listing standards as same applies to private foreign issuers and the applicable rules and regulations of the SEC.

 

Item 6D.          Employees

 

At June 1, 2011, the Company (exclusive of Yixing-Pact) had approximately 105 full-time employees. At December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008, staffing levels were approximately as follows:

 

 

 

2010

 

2009

 

2008

 

Marketing and sales

 

43

 

54

 

61

 

Administrative

 

39

 

48

 

49

 

Technical

 

34

 

38

 

39

 

Total full time employees

 

116

 

140

 

149

 

 

At June 1, 2011 Pact and Yixing had approximately 72 full-time employees. At December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008, respectively, staffing levels were approximately as follows: Engineers; 50, 50, and 54, Administrative Persons; 22, 20 and 22.

 

The Company is not subject to any collective bargaining agreement and believes that its relations with its employees are good. The Company’s Management consists of its officers and directors.

 

Item 6E.          Share Ownership

 

With respect to the share ownership of the directors and senior management of the Company, reference is made to Item 7. “Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions.”

 

ITEM 7.           MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

 

Item 7A.          Major Shareholders

 

The following table sets forth, as of June 1, 2011, certain information concerning beneficial ownership of the Company’s voting shares that date, with respect to (i) each person known to the Company to own 5% or more of the outstanding Ordinary Shares, (ii) each director and executive officer of the Company, and (iii) all officers and directors of

 

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the Company as a group:

 

 

 

Amount and
Nature of

Beneficial
Ownership(3)

 

Approximate
Percentage

Of Ordinary
Shares Owned

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

T.C. Leung (1)(2)(3)

 

6,118,998

 

52.4

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pearl Venture Ltd.(1)(2)

 

1,478,675

 

12.9

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alex Sham(1)

 

295,480

 

2.6

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jerry Wong(1)

 

191,766

 

1.7

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

Y.K. Liang(1)

 

*

 

*

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Xu Hong Wang(1)(3)

 

40,000

 

0.3

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ka Chong Cheang(1)

 

*

 

*

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Li Da Weng(1)

 

*

 

*

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

All Executive Officers And Directors of the Company as a group (7 persons)(2) (3)

 

6,476,244

 

56.9

%

 


*

 

Denotes Nil

 

 

 

(1)

 

The address for the Company’s officers and directors is c/o Euro Tech (Far East) Ltd., 18/F Gee Chang Hong Centre, 65 Wong Chuk Hang Road, Hong Kong. The address for Pearl Venture Ltd. (“Pearl”) is Columbus Centre Building, Wichhams Cay, Road Town, Tortola, British Virgin Islands.

 

 

 

(2)

 

Includes shares of the Company’s Common Stock owned of record by Pearl, which is a trust established for the benefit of Mr. Leung.

 

 

 

(3)

 

Gives effect to the exercise of the 2002 Officers and Directors Plan Options owned of record by such persons and which have vested. See Item 6B. “Compensation.”

 

Item 7B.          Related Party Transactions

 

See Item 4.B.  Business Overview - Business for the discussion of the formation of the joint venture.  Pact Environmental Equipment Co. Limited in June 2007.

 

See Item 6B. Compensation.

 

ITEM 8.           FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

Item 8A.          Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information

 

Item 8A.1               See Item 18.

 

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Item 8A.2               See Item 18.

 

Item 8A.3               See Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firms, pages F-2 and F-3.

 

Item 8A.4               We have complied with this requirement.

 

Item 8A.5               Not applicable.

 

Item 8A.6               Not applicable.

 

Item 8A.7               Legal Proceedings. See “ - Item 4B. Business Overview - Litigation.”

 

Item 8A.8               Dividend Policy.

 

The Company has not paid cash dividends to date. The payment of cash dividends, if any, in the future is within the discretion of the Board of Directors. The payment of cash dividends, if any, in the future will depend upon the Company’s earnings, capital requirements and financial conditions and other relevant factors. The Company’s Board of Directors does not presently intend to declare any cash dividends in the foreseeable future, but instead intends to retain all earnings, if any, for use in the Company and Far East’s business operations.

 

Item 8B.          Significant Changes

 

There has not been any significant change since the date of the annual financial statements included in this Report.

 

ITEM 9.          THE OFFERING AND LISTING

 

Item 9A.          Listing Details

 

The Company has one class of securities presently registered: Ordinary Shares. These securities are presently traded on the NASDAQ’s Capital Market under the trading symbols “CLWT”, and have so traded since the Company’s Public Offering in March 1997.

 

The high and low prices for the Ordinary Shares in the periods indicated, as reported by NASDAQ, are set forth below:

 

Years Ended December 31,

 

Low

 

High

 

 

 

US$

 

US$

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2006

 

1.68

 

5.74

 

2007

 

1.81

 

5.14

 

2008

 

0.66

 

3.15

 

2009

 

0.40

 

4.22

 

2010

 

1.00

 

2.68

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Quarters Ended

 

Low

 

High

 

 

 

US$

 

US$

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 30, 2009

 

0.64

 

1.76

 

September 30, 2009

 

0.81

 

1.69

 

December 31, 2009

 

1.36

 

4.22

 

March 31, 2010

 

1.75

 

2.68

 

June 30, 2010

 

1.38

 

2.57

 

September 30, 2010

 

1.10

 

1.72

 

December 31, 2010

 

1.00

 

1.90

 

March 31, 2011

 

1.13

 

1.66

 

 

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The Following Months

 

Low

 

High

 

 

 

US$

 

US$

 

January 2011

 

1.13

 

1.55

 

February 2011

 

1.21

 

1.48

 

March 2011

 

1.19

 

1.66

 

April 2011

 

1.19

 

1.5

 

May 2011

 

1.03

 

1.25

 

 

The Ordinary Shares were held by approximately 40 holders of record as of June 3, 2011.  Based upon information received from broker-dealers, clearing firms and others, the Company believes that it has in excess of 1,900 beneficial holders of its Ordinary Shares.

 

Item 9C. Markets

 

See Item 9A. “Listing Details.”

 

ITEM 10.                                           ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

 

Item 10A.                                          Share Capital

 

Authorized Capital. The authorized capital of the Company is US$250,000 comprised of 20,000,000 Ordinary Shares and 5,000,000 shares of Preferred Stock. As of December 31, 2010, there were 11,521,490 Ordinary Shares and no shares of Preferred Stock, issued and outstanding.  As of December 31, 2010 approximately 741,466 Ordinary Shares were held by the Company as treasury stock and are non-voting. All of the Company’s shares of capital stock have a par value of US$0.01 per share.

 

Holders of the Company’s Ordinary Shares are entitled to one vote for each whole share on all matters to be voted upon by shareholders, including the election of directors. Holders of Ordinary Shares do not have cumulative voting rights in the election of directors. All shares of Ordinary Shares are equal to each other with respect to liquidation and dividend rights. Holders of Ordinary Shares are entitled to receive dividends if and when declared by the Company’s Board of Directors out of funds legally available under British Virgin Islands law. In the event of the liquidation of the Company, all assets available for distribution to the holders of Ordinary Shares are distributable among them according to their respective share holdings. All of the outstanding shares of Ordinary Shares of the Company are duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and non-assessable.

 

Pursuant to the Company’s Memorandum and Articles of Association and pursuant to the laws of the British Virgin Islands, the Company’s Memorandum and Articles of Association may be amended by a resolution of the Board of Directors without shareholder approval. This includes amendments to increase or reduce the authorized capital stock of the Company or to increase or reduce the par value of its shares. The ability of the Company to amend its Memorandum and Articles of Association without shareholder approval could have the effect of delaying, deterring or preventing a change in control of the Company without any further action by the shareholders including but not limited to, a tender offer to purchase the Common Stock at a premium over then current market prices.

 

Under United States law, majority and controlling shareholders generally have certain “fiduciary” responsibilities to the minority shareholders. Shareholder action must be taken in good faith and actions by controlling shareholders which are obviously unreasonable may be declared null and void. The British Virgin Islands law protecting the interests of the minority shareholders is not as protective in all circumstances as the law protecting minority shareholders in United States jurisdictions. While British Virgin Islands law does not permit a shareholder of a British Virgin Islands company to sue its directors derivatively, i.e., in the name of and for the benefit of the Company, and to sue the Company and its directors for his benefit and the benefit of others similarly situated, the circumstances in which any such action may be brought that may be available in respect of any such action may result in the rights of shareholders of a British Virgin Island company being more limited than those rights of shareholders in a United States company.

 

The Board of Directors of the Company, without further shareholder action, may issue shares of Preferred Stock in any number of series and may establish as to each such series the designation and number of shares to be issued and the relative rights and preferences of the shares of each series, including provisions regarding voting powers, redemption, dividend rights, rights upon liquidation and conversion rights. The issuance of shares of Preferred Stock by the Board of Directors could adversely effect the rights of holders of Ordinary Shares by, among other matters, establishing preferential dividends, liquidation rights and voting power. The Company has not issued any shares of Preferred Stock and has no

 

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present intention to issue shares of Preferred Stock. The issuance thereof could discourage or defeat efforts to acquire control of the Company through acquisition of Ordinary Shares.

 

Item 10B.                                          Memorandum and Articles of Association

 

Set forth below is a summary of the material provisions of our Memorandum and Articles of Association (the “Articles) and the British Virgin Islands’ (“BVI”) International Business Companies Act of 1984 relating to the shares. This description does not purport to be complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to BVI statutory law and to the Articles.

 

Share Register and Voting Restrictions.  The Company maintains a share register at its registered office in the BVI. The Company’s registered number is 200960. The objects of the Company are to engage in any act or activity that is not prohibited under any law of the BVI. Under the Articles, the Company is not required to treat the holder of a registered share in the Company as a shareholder until that person’s name has been entered in the share register. The holders of Ordinary Shares have one vote for each Ordinary Share held of record. The holders of Preferred Shares have such voting powers, full or limited, or no voting powers and such restrictions as may be stated and expressed in the resolution providing for the issuance of the Preferred Shares.

 

Shareholders Meeting. The directors of the Company may convene meetings of the shareholders of the Company at such times and in such manner and places within or outside the BVI as the directors consider necessary or desirable. Upon the written request of the shareholders holding ten (10%) percent or more of the outstanding voting shares in the Company the directors must convene a meeting of shareholders.

 

A shareholder may participate at a meeting of shareholders by telephone or other electronic means, as long as all shareholders participating in the meeting are able to hear each other.

 

A meeting of shareholders is duly constituted if, at the commencement of the meeting, there are present in person or by proxy not less than fifty (50%) percent of the votes of the shares or class series of shares entitled to vote on resolutions of shareholders to be considered at the meeting.

 

If a quorum is not present, the meeting, if convened upon the requisition of shareholders, shall be dissolved; in any other case it shall stand adjourned to the next business day at the same time and place or to such other time and place as the directors may determine, and if at the adjourned meeting there are present in person or by proxy not less than one third of the votes of the shares or each class or series of shares entitled to vote on the resolutions to be considered by the meeting, those present shall constitute a quorum but otherwise the meeting shall be dissolved.

 

Any action that may be taken by the shareholders at a meeting may also be taken by a resolution of shareholders consented to in writing or by written electronic communication, without the need for any notice, but if not a unanimous writing, a copy of such resolution shall be sent to all non-consenting shareholders.

 

Net Profits and Dividends. Under BVI law, dividends may only be declared and paid out of surplus, such that after payment of dividends the Company must be able to satisfy its liabilities as they become due in the ordinary course of business and the realizable value of the assets of such company must not be less than the sum of its liabilities (other than deferred taxes and capital). There are no other BVI restrictions regarding dividends.

 

Pre-emptive Rights. The holders of Ordinary Shares and Preferred Shares are not entitled to any pre-emptive or similar rights.

 

Conflict of Interests. No agreement or transaction between the Company and one or more of its directors or any person in which any director has a financial interest or to whom any director is related, including as a director of that other person, is void and avoidable for this reason only, or by reason only that the director is present at the meeting of directors, or at the meeting of the committee of directors that approves the agreement or transaction, or that the vote or consent of the director is counted for that purpose, if the material facts of the interest of each director in the agreement or transaction and his interest in or relationship to any other party to the agreement or transaction are disclosed in good faith, or are known by the other directors. A director who has an interest in any particular business to be considered at a meeting of directors or shareholders may be counted for purposes of determining whether the meeting is duly constituted.

 

Repurchase of Shares. The Company may purchase, redeem or otherwise acquire and hold its own shares, but only out of surplus or in exchange for newly issued shares of equal value. Subject to provisions to the contrary in:

 

(a)                                       the designations, powers, preferences, rights, qualifications, limitations and restrictions with which the shares were issued; or

 

(b)                                      the subscription agreement for the issue of the shares,

 

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the Company may not purchase, redeem or otherwise acquire its own shares without the consent of shareholders whose shares are to be purchased, redeemed or otherwise acquired.

 

Generally, no purchase, redemption or other acquisition of shares shall be made unless the directors determine that immediately after purchase, redemption or other acquisition the Company will be able to satisfy its liabilities as they become due in the ordinary course of its business and the realizable value of the assets of the Company will not be less than the sum of its total liabilities, other than deferred taxes, as shown in the books of account, and its capital and, in the absence of fraud, the decision of the directors as to the realizable value of the assets of the Company is conclusive, unless a question of law is involved.

 

Duration, Liquidation, Merger.  The Company shall continue until wound-up and dissolved by a resolution of shareholders, or under the terms of any insolvency or liquidation laws in force in the BVI. Under BVI law the Company may merge with another company, including a parent company or subsidiary, incorporated in the BVI, or in a jurisdiction outside of the BVI where the laws of that jurisdiction permit the merger. A merger must be authorized by the directors of the Company and approved by the shareholders.

 

Board of Directors. The business and affairs of the Company are managed by the directors who may exercise all such powers of the Company as are not by BVI law or by the Company’s Articles reserved to the shareholders of the Company.

 

Item 10C.             Material Contracts

 

On April 29, 2007, Far East entered into a subscription agreement with Blue Sky and Blue Sky’s management shareholders to purchase twenty (20%) percent of the equity capital of Blue Sky (the “Blue Sky Agreement”) for a total of US$4,700,000 of which US$4,000,000 was paid in August 2007 with a final payment of US$692,000 paid in Fiscal 2008.  The Blue Sky Agreement contains certain provisions requiring Far East’s written consent prior to Blue Sky; taking on new shareholders, pledging or selling assets, declaring a dividend, amending its constitution, guaranteeing the obligations of third parties, engaging in any transaction having a material adverse effect on its financial status or outlook, voluntarily winding up its affairs, dismissing management or changing their rates of compensation, appointing directors and similar provisions. Far East also has the right to and has appointed a non-executive director to Blue Sky, who does not participate in the day to day management of Blue Sky.  In the event Blue Sky sells additional shares, Far East has the right to maintain its 20% interest by paying the same price as any proposed purchaser.  As part of the Blue Sky Agreement, Far East agreed that if it was able and circumstances permit, it would undertake the obligation of guaranteeing loans of not more than US$2,900,000 for Blue Sky.

 

On January 20, 2008, pursuant to a subscription agreement, of July 18, 2007, with Jia Huan and Jia Huan’s management shareholders, Far East purchased twenty (20%) percent of the equity capital of Jia Huan for US$2,500,000 (the “Jia Huan Agreement”).  The Jia Huan Agreement contains certain provisions requiring Far East’s written consent prior to Jia Huan; taking on new shareholders, pledging or selling assets, declaring a dividend, amending its constitution, guaranteeing the obligations of third parties, engaging in any transaction having a material adverse effect on its financial status or outlook, voluntarily winding up its affairs dismissing management or changing their rates of compensation, appointing directors and similar provisions. Far East, also has the right to and has appointed a non-executive director who does not participate in the day to day management of Jia Huan.  In the event Jia Huan sells additional shares, Far East has the right to maintain its 20% interest by paying the same price as any proposed purchaser.

 

As part of its acquisitions of Yixing and Pact, the Company granted the minority shareholders of both entities the right to require the Company to purchase the remaining securities of Yixing and Pact pursuant to a formula that would obligate the Company to pay the minority shareholders approximately US$1,445,000.  On January 2, 2010, the Company purchased an additional two (2%) of Pact for approximately US$73,000. In April 2011, the Company signed agreements to acquire additional five (5%) equity interests in Yixing and Pact for a total consideration of approximately US$234,000. There has been no further indication to the Company from the minority shareholders that they desire to sell their shares. See Item 4A. “History and Development of the Company” and Item 4B. “Business Overview”.

 

Item 10D.             Exchange Controls

 

There are no exchange control restrictions on payment of dividends on the Company’s Ordinary Shares or on the conduct of the Company’s operations either in Hong Kong, where the Company’s principal executive offices are located, or the British Virgin Islands, where the Company is incorporated. There are no British Virgin Islands laws which impose foreign exchange controls on the Company or that effect the payment of dividends, interest, or other payments to non-resident holders of the Company’s securities. British Virgin Islands laws and the Company’s Memorandum and

 

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Articles of Association impose no limitations on the right of non-resident or foreign owners to hold the Company’s securities or vote the Company’s Ordinary Shares. The PRC government has established a unified exchange rate system and system of exchange controls to which the Company is subject.

 

Item 10E.             Taxation

 

BVI

 

The Company is exempted from taxation in the British Virgin Islands.

 

HONG KONG

 

The Company’s subsidiaries organized in Hong Kong, Far East, Euro Tech (China) Limited and ChinaH2O.com Limited, provide for Hong Kong profits tax at a rate of 16.5% in 2010 on the basis of their income for financial reporting purposes, adjusting for income and expense items which are not assessable or deductible for profits tax purposes.

 

PRC

 

Euro Tech Trading (Shanghai) Limited (“ETTS”), a subsidiary of the Company, provides for PRC Enterprise Income Tax at a rate of 22%, after offsetting losses brought forward, if any, on the basis of its income for financing reporting purposes, adjusting for income and expense items which are not assessable or deductible for PRC Enterprise Income Tax purposes. As of December 31, 2010, ETTS had an assessable loss carried forward of US$122,309 as agreed by the local tax authority to offset its profits for the forth coming years. Such loss will expire in five years.

 

In accordance with the relevant income tax laws and regulations applicable to foreign investment enterprises in the PRC, Shanghai Euro Tech Limited (“SET”), a subsidiary of the Company, is exempt from PRC Enterprise Income Tax of 15% for two years starting from 2008, after offsetting losses brought forward, if any, followed by a 50% reduction for the next three years thereafter. As of December 31, 2010, SET had an assessable loss carried forward of US$406,409 as agreed by the local tax authority to offset its profits for the forth coming years. Such loss will expire in five years.

 

Shanghai Euro Tech Environmental Engineering Limited (“SETEE”) is exempt from the PRC Enterprise Income Tax for two years starting from 2007, after offsetting losses brought forward, if any, followed by a 50% reduction for the next three years thereafter. As of December 31, 2010, SETEE had an assessable loss carried forward of US$724,383 as agreed by the local tax authority to offset its profit for the forth coming years. Such loss will expire in 5 years. Chongqing Euro Tech Rizhi Technology Co., Ltd, Rizhi Euro Tech Instrument (Shaanxi) Co., Ltd and Guangzhou Euro Tech Environmental Equipment Co., Ltd provide for PRC Enterprise Income Tax at a rate of 25%, after offsetting losses brought forward, if any, on the basis of its income for financial reporting purposes, adjusting for income and expense items which are not assessable or deductible for PRC Enterprise Income Tax purposes.

 

According to the relevant PRC tax rules and regulations, Yixing Pact Environmental Technology Co., Ltd is registered in Shanghai as Foreign Owned Enterprise that is entitled to a tax rate of 25%.

 

Variable Interest Entities (“VIES”), as defined by the Financial Accounting Standards Board are included in the consolidated financial statements, where applicable, of the Company and its subsidiaries (the “Group”).  VIES of the Group provide for PRC Enterprise Income Tax at a rate of 25%, after offsetting losses brought forward, if any, on the basis of its income for financial reporting purposes, adjusting for income and expense items which are not assessable or deductible for PRC Enterprise Income Tax purposes.

 

As of December 31, 2010, certain VIEs had aggregated assessable losses carried forward of US$Nil as agreed by the local tax authority.

 

The principal reconciling items from income tax computed at the statutory rates and at the effective income tax rates are as follows:

 

 

 

2010

 

2009

 

2008

 

 

 

US$’000

 

US$’000

 

US$’000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Computed tax using respective companies statutory tax rates

 

(203

)

46

 

223

 

Change in valuation allowances

 

158

 

121

 

99

 

Under-provision for income tax in prior years

 

 

7

 

 

Non-deductible expenses

 

199

 

44

 

(1

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total provision for income tax at effective tax rate

 

154

 

218

 

321

 

 

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On March 16, 2007, the PRC National People’s Congress passed the Enterprise Income Tax Law (“Income Tax Law”), which became effective January 1, 2008 and applies a unified income tax rate for foreign invested enterprises and domestic enterprise. The Income Tax Law is effective immediately for companies previously subject to higher taxation rates and provides a five-year transition period from its effective date for those enterprises which were established before the effective date of the new tax law and previously entitled to a preferential tax treatment.

 

On December 26, 2007, the State Council and on February 20, 2008 the Ministry of Finance issued implementation guidelines (“Guidelines”) setting out how the transition of tax rates will occur. The Guidelines state that those enterprises which enjoyed a preferential tax rate of 15% are eligible for a graduated rate increase to 25% over the 5-year period beginning from January 1, 2008. The applicable rates under such an agreements for such enterprises are 18%, 20%, 22%, 24% and 25% for 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 and thereafter, respectively. In addition, foreign investment manufacturing enterprises which have not fully utilized any preferential tax treatments, such as tax holidays or reduced rates of taxation, will be able to continue to receive them during the transitional period. The Company has applied the new rate in relation to deferred tax balances.

 

Under the New Enterprise Income Tax (“EIT”) Law and the implementation rules, profits of the PRC subsidiaries earned on or after January 1, 2008 and distributed by the PRC subsidiaries to foreign holding company are subject to a withholding tax at a rate of 5% unless reduced by tax treaty. Aggregate undistributed earnings of the Company’s subsidiaries located in the PRC that are available for distribution to the Company of approximately US$2.2 million at December 31, 2010 are intended to be reinvested, and accordingly, no deferred taxation has been made for the PRC dividend withholding taxes that would be payable upon the distribution of those amounts to the Company.  Distributions made out of pre January 1, 2008 retained earnings will not be subject to the withholding tax.

 

PRC statutory reserves.

 

Under the relevant PRC laws and regulations, the PRC subsidiaries are required to appropriate certain percentage of their respective net income to two statutory funds i.e. the statutory reserve fund and the statutory staff welfare fund. The PRC subsidiaries can also appropriate certain amount of their net income to the enterprise expansion fund.

 

(i) Statutory reserve fund

 

Pursuant to applicable PRC laws and regulations, the PRC subsidiaries are required to allocate at least 10% of the companies’ net income to the statutory reserve fund until such fund reaches 50% of their respective registered capital. The statutory reserve fund can be utilized upon the approval by the relevant authorities, to offset accumulated losses or to increase registered capital of the companies, provided that such fund be maintained at a minimum of 25% of the companies’ registered capital.

 

Under the PRC laws and regulations, the Company’s PRC subsidiaries are restricted in their ability to transfer certain of their net assets to the Company in the form of dividend payments, loans or advances. The amounts restricted include paid-in capital and statutory reserves, as determined pursuant to PRC generally accepted accounting principles, totaling US$3,916,000 as at December 31, 2010 (2009:US$3,694,000).

 

(ii) Statutory staff welfare fund

 

Pursuant to applicable PRC laws and regulations, the PRC subsidiaries are required to allocate certain amount of their respective net income to the staff welfare funds determined by the Company. The staff welfare funds can only be used to provide staff welfare facilities and other collective benefits to their employees. This fund is non-distributable other than upon liquidation of the PRC subsidiaries.

 

(iii) Enterprise expansion fund

 

The expansion fund shall only be used to make up losses, expand the PRC respective subsidiaries’ production operations, or increase the capital of the subsidiaries. The expansion fund can be utilized upon approval by relevant authorities, to convert into registered capital and issue bonus capital to existing investors, provided that such fund be maintained at a minimum of 25% of the companies’ registered capital.

 

UNITED STATES FEDERAL INCOME TAXATION

 

The following discussion is a summary of the material United States federal income tax considerations that may be relevant to the purchase, holding, ownership, disposition or sale of our ordinary shares.

 

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This discussion is general in nature and does not discuss all aspects of U.S. federal income taxation which may be important to particular investors in light of their individual circumstances, including investors subject to special U.S. taxation rules.

 

A U.S. Holder holding or considering acquiring or disposing of our ordinary shares is urged to consult his or her own tax advisor concerning the U.S. federal, state, local and non-U.S. income and other tax consequences of the holding, ownership, purchase, disposition or sale of our ordinary shares in light of such U.S. Holder’s particular circumstances.

 

A “U.S. Holder” for purposes of this discussion is a beneficial owner of ordinary shares that is, for U.S. federal income tax purposes:  (a) a citizen or resident of the United States; (b) a corporation or other entity taxable as a corporation created or organized in or under the laws of the United States, any state thereof, or the District of Columbia; (c) an estate the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income taxation, regardless of its source; or (d) a trust if it is subject to the primary supervision of a court within the United States and one or more U.S. persons have the authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust or has a valid election in effect under applicable U.S. Treasury regulations to be treated as a U.S. person.

 

If a partnership holds our ordinary shares, the tax treatment of a partner will generally depend on the status of the partner and the activities of the partnership. A partner of a partnership holding our ordinary shares is urged to consult its own tax advisor regarding an investment in our ordinary shares.

 

Passive foreign investment company rules. A passive foreign investment company (“PFIC”) for any taxable year in which either (a) at least 75% of our gross income is passive income or (b) at least 50% of the value (determined on the basis of a quarterly average) of our assets is attributable to assets that produce or are held for the production of passive income. For this purpose, passive income generally includes dividends, interest, royalties, rents (other than rents and royalties derived in the active conduct of a trade or business and not derived from a related person), annuities and gains from assets that produce passive income.

 

The annual PFIC determination to be made by a U.S. Holder of our ordinary shares is an inherently factual determination and there is limited guidance regarding the application of the PFIC rules to specific situations. Although the determination of PFIC status is subject to factual uncertainties because it depends upon the valuation of our ordinary shares as well as our goodwill and other assets and income.  In addition, as the determination of PFIC status is made on an annual basis and depends on variables over which we have limited control, there can be no assurance that we will not be classified as a PFIC for 2010 or any future calendar years.

 

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Item 10H.            Documents on Display

 

The documents that are exhibits to or incorporated by reference in this annual report can be read at the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission’s public reference facilities at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, DC 20549-2001 or on the Commission’s website: www.sec.gov.

 

Item 10I.            Subsidiary Information

 

For information on the Company’s subsidiaries see Item 4C.  The separate financial statements of Blue Sky, as required under Regulation S-X 210.3-09, entities in which the Company owns a 20% equity interest are attached hereto.

 

ITEM 11.                                            QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

 

The Company’s primary risk exposures arise from changes in interest rates and foreign currency exchanges rates. Foreign Currency Risks

 

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The Company is exposed to risk from changing foreign currency exchange rates. The Company’s sales are denominated either in HK dollar or RMB. The majority of the Company’s expenses and cost of revenue are denominated in HK dollars, followed by RMB, US dollars, Japanese yen and the Euro. The Company is subject to a variety of risks associated with changes among the relative value of the US dollar, HK dollar, RMB, Japanese yen and the Euro. The Company does not currently adequately hedge its foreign exchange positions. Any material increase in the value of the HK dollar, RMB, Japanese yen and the Euro relative to the US dollar would increase the Company’s expenses and cost of revenue and therefore would have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Inflation

 

The Company cannot accurately determine the precise effect of inflation on its operations, it does not believe inflation has had a material effect on sales or results of operations during the past several years.  Efforts by the PRC to curb inflation may also curb economic growth, increase our overhead costs and adversely affect our sales.  If the PRC rate of inflation continues to increase, the Chinese government may introduce further measures intended to reduce the inflation rate in the PRC.  Any such measures adopted by the Chinese government may not be successful in reducing or slowing the increase in the PRC’s inflation rate.  Sustained or increased inflation in the PRC may have an adverse impact on the PRC’s economy and may materially and adversely affect our business and financial results.

 

The Company is currently not exposed to material future earnings or cash flow exposures from changes in interest rates on debt obligations as the Company had no bank indebtedness in Fiscal 2010. The Company does not currently anticipate entering into interest rate swaps and/or similar instruments.

 

PART II

 

ITEM15.    CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

 

(a)          Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures

 

Our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer has evaluated the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d -15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (“Exchange Act”) as of the end of the period covered by this Annual Report on Form 20-F.  Based on such evaluation, they have concluded that as of such date, our disclosure controls and procedures are effective and designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by us in reports that we file or submit under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in applicable Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) rules and forms and they effectively ensure that information required to be disclosed in our reports filed or submitted under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to our management, including, our Chief Executive Officer and Principal Financial Officer, allowing for timely decisions regarding required disclosures.

 

(b)                           Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting

 

Our management, under the supervision of our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting as defined in Rule 13a-15(f) and Rule 15d-15(f) of the Exchange Act.  Our internal control system was designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation and fair presentation of our consolidated financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.  Our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer assessed the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2010.  In making this assessment, they used the criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (“COSO”).  Based on this assessment, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer have concluded that, as of December 31, 2010, our internal control over financial reporting is effective based on those criteria.  Notwithstanding the foregoing, all internal control systems, no matter how well designed, have inherent limitations.  Therefore, even those systems determined to be effective may not prevent or detect misstatements and can provide only reasonable assurance with respect to financial statement preparation and presentation.  Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

 

(c)                            Changes in Internal Controls

 

There were no changes in our internal controls that occurred during the period covered by our annual report that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect our internal control over financial reporting.

 

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Item 16A.             Audit Committee Financial Expert

 

The Committee includes one non-employee director who meets the independence and “financial expert” requirements and two other members who meet the independence requirements of the NASDAQ listing standards and the rules and regulations of U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.  The Committee includes Messrs. Y.K. Liang, Ka Chong Cheang and Li Da Weng.  Mr. Y.K. Liang is the “financial expert” on that committee.

 

Item 16B.             Code Of Ethics

 

Our Board of Directors has adopted a code of business conduct and ethics that applies to our directors, officers and employees, including certain provisions that specifically apply to our chief executive officer, chief financial officer and any other persons who perform similar functions for us.  The Company agrees to undertake to provide to any person without charge, a copy of our code of business conduct and ethics within ten working days after we receive such person’s written request.

 

Item 16C.             Principal Accountant Fees And Services

 

The following table sets forth the aggregate fees by categories specified below in connection with certain professional services rendered by BDO Limited who were our principal external auditors, for 2010, 2009 and 2008.

 

 

 

For the Year Ended December, 31

 

 

 

2010

 

2009

 

2008

 

 

 

US$

 

US$

 

US$

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Audit fees(1)

 

178,700

 

190,000

 

154,000

 

Audit-related fees(2)

 

Nil

 

Nil

 

Nil

 

Tax fees(3)

 

6,700

 

6,400

 

3,800

 

All other fees

 

Nil

 

Nil

 

Nil

 

 

Our Audit Committee has adopted a pre-approval policy for the engagement of our independent accountant to perform permitted audit and non-audit services. Under this policy, which is designed to assure that such engagements do not impair the independence of our auditors, the Audit Committee pre-approves annually a range of specific audit and non-audit services in the categories of Audit Service, Audit-Related Services, Tax Services and other services that may be performed by our independent accountants, and the maximum pre-approved fees that may be paid as compensation for each pre-approved service in those categories. Any proposed services exceeding the maximum pre-approved fees require specific approval by the Audit Committee.

 


 (1)         “Audit fees” means the aggregate fees billed in each of the fiscal years listed for professional services rendered by our principal auditors for the audit of our annual financial statements.

 

(2)            “Audit-related fees” means the aggregate fees billed in each of the fiscal years listed for assurance and related services by our principal auditors that are reasonably related to the performance of the audit or review of our financial statements and are not reported under “Audit fees.” Services comprising the fees disclosed under the category of “Audit-related fees” involve principally the performance of certain agreed upon procedures for the years ended December 31, 2008, 2009 and 2010, respectively.

 

(3)            “Tax fees” means the aggregated fees billed in each of the years listed for professional services rendered by our principal auditors for tax compliance, tax advice and tax planning.

 

Item 16D.             Exemptions From Listing Standards

 

The Company is a “Controlled Company” as defined in NASDAQ’s corporate governance rules as a majority of our shares are owned by a “control group” consisting of T.C. Leung and Pearl Venture Ltd., who have disclosed their “control group” status in their filings with the Commission.  So long as that “controlled company” status remains in effect, the Company will be exempt from certain of NASDAQ corporate governance rules that, including among other things, would require: (a) a majority of our directors be independent; (b) the compensation of our chief executive officer be determined or recommended by independent directors; and (c) director nominations be determined or recommended by independent directors.

 

The Company believes it is in compliance with NASDAQ’s corporate governance rules as in effect and intends to comply with the changes to said rules no later than the date that they become effective.

 

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Item 16E.             Purchases of Equity Securities By Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers.

 

During the following months in 2008 and 2009, T.C. Leung, our Chief Executive Officer and principal shareholder, either directly or through an entity beneficially owned by him (Regent), purchased shares in the open market from time to time.

 

As of May 31, 2010, the Company shares have been purchased by him at prices ranging from US$0.52 to US$1.04 with an average price per share of US$0.78 as more particularly set forth below:

 

Period

 

(a) Total Number of
Shares Purchased

 

(b) Average Price
Per Share

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

November 1, 2008 to

 

 

 

 

 

November 30, 2008

 

1,300

 

US$

0.95

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 1, 2008 to

 

 

 

 

 

December 31, 2008

 

1,100

 

US$

0.91

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

January 1, 2009 to

 

 

 

 

 

January 31, 2009

 

2,900

 

US$

1.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

February 1, 2009 to

 

 

 

 

 

February 28, 2009

 

2,000

 

US$

0.52

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

March 1, 2009 to

 

 

 

 

 

March 31, 2009

 

500

 

US$

0.57

 

 

In November 2008, the Company adopted a program to repurchase up to 300,000 of its issued and outstanding Ordinary Shares by December 31, 2009. This gave Euro Tech the ability to purchase the shares in the open market or through negotiated or block transactions from time to time based on market and business conditions. Under this program, the Company had the ability to purchase its Ordinary Shares in the open market or through negotiated or block transactions from time to time based on market and business conditions until the end of 2009.  As of July 31, 2009, 300,034 of the Company’s Ordinary Shares have been purchased by the Company under this program at prices ranging from US$0.45 to US$1.19 with an average price per share of US$0.88 as more particularly described below:

 

November 2008 Buy Back Program

 

Period

 

(a) Total
Number of
Shares
Purchased

 

(b) Average Price
Paid per Share

 

(c) Total Number of
Shares Purchased as
Part of Publicly
Announced Plans or
Programs

 

(d) Maximum
Number of Shares
that May Yet Be
Purchased Under the
Plans or Programs

 

November 1, 2008 to

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

November 30, 2008

 

12,691

 

US$

1.06

 

12,691

 

287,309

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 1, 2008 to

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 31, 2008

 

28,350

 

US$

1.08

 

28,350

 

258,959

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

January 1, 2009 to

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

January 31, 2009

 

36,900

 

US$

0.99

 

36,900

 

222,059

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

February 1, 2009 to

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

February 28, 2009

 

41,090

 

US$

0.62

 

41,090

 

180,969

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

March 1, 2009 to

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

March 31, 2009

 

77,320

 

US$

0.63

 

77,320

 

103,649

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

April 1, 2009 to

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

April 30, 2009

 

36,183

 

US$

0.98

 

36,183

 

67,466

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May 1, 2009 to

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May 31, 2009

 

20,149

 

US$

1.02

 

20,149

 

47,317

 

 

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Period

 

(a) Total
Number of
Shares
Purchased

 

(b) Average Price
Paid per Share

 

(c) Total Number of
Shares Purchased as
Part of Publicly
Announced Plans or
Programs

 

(d) Maximum
Number of Shares
that May Yet Be
Purchased Under the
Plans or Programs

 

June 1, 2009 to

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 30, 2009

 

5,400

 

US$

1.21

 

5,400

 

41,917

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

July 1, 2009 to

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

July 31, 2009

 

41,951

 

US$

1.09

 

41,951

 

 

 

In July 2009, the Company adopted another program to repurchase up to an additional 300,000 of its issued and outstanding ordinary shares by July 31, 2010.  As of July 31, 2010, 65,135 of the Company’s Ordinary Shares have been purchased by the Company under this additional program at prices ranging from US$0.86 to US$1.73 with an average price per share of US$1.37 as more particularly described below:

 

July 2009 Buy Back Program

 

Period

 

(a) Total
Number of
Shares
Purchased

 

(b) Average Price
Paid per Share

 

(c) Total Number of
Shares Purchased as
Part of Publicly
Announced Plans or
Programs

 

(d) Maximum
Number of Shares
that May Yet Be
Purchased Under the
Plans or Programs

 

July 1, 2009 to

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

July 31, 2009

 

100

 

US$

1.43

 

100

 

299,900

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

August 1, 2009 to

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

August 31, 2009

 

13,500

 

US$

1.27

 

13,500

 

286,400

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

September 1, 2009 to

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

September 30, 2009

 

12,535

 

US$

1.30

 

12,535

 

273,865

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

October 1, 2009 to

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

October 31, 2009

 

500

 

US$

1.57

 

500

 

273,365

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May 1, 2010 to

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May 31, 2010

 

8,500

 

US$

1.69

 

8,500

 

264,865

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 1, 2010 to

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 30, 2010

 

7,400

 

US$

1.54

 

7,400

 

257,465

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

July 1, 2010 to

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